The Istituto per le Case Popolari Institute for Public Housing , or ICP, replaced the piecemeal, unprofitable, and often extortionist efforts of the private sector and cash-strapped municipalities with a bureaucracy to oversee low-income housing. The Luzzatti bill required that specific standards 27 be maintained: a minimal floor area per room, a limited number of floors per building, double exposures for cross ventilation and light, and the rigorous separation of sanitary facilities from kitchens.
Use of new materials and building technology was encouraged. As public housing projects were often large-scale developments covering a number of city blocks, architects were urged to avoid the monotonous look of a barracks, "empty of all thought, of any life, denuded of all grace," as an ICP director said.
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The ordered Renaissance palazzo facade became an essential template that allowed easy integration with most streetscapes. Shared interior courtyards provided area for communal gardens, wash rooms, or nursery schools. Luzzatti conceived public housing as an integrating social agent, an instructive means toward a healthier, more cohesive society, befitting his official responsibility for education.
The results of the ICP's efforts varied among the major cities, but were generally successful. The Milanese were the first to install electric lighting, central heating, and linoleum flooring developed by the Pirelli tire company. By the end of the decade, in the capital's annual tally of newly built housing, subsidized units outnumbered speculative ones. The forty-four duplex units, detached and semidetached row houses, were designed by the ICP staff designer Quadrio Pirani, a member of the Italian socialist party. These modest brick constructions are unique in Rome for their rich textures and natural colors.
Pirani let the craftsmen develop their own variety of decorative patterns. However, unforeseen complications in laying the foundations over ancient quarries drove the price of the units out of range of the target group. When he designed more ICP construction here in , Pirani had to increase plot density and building height and reduce standards for the internal details in order to meet more realistic economic goals. In the ICP rescued Testaccio with ten sober 28 blocks by Giulio Magni that reduced Pirani's interesting surfaces to an economical minimum.
Pirani eventually designed two dozen more buildings in his characteristic brick for Testaccio along the riverbank from to Despite these successful and admirable works and the advance of the building type in other countries, public housing in Italy ranked below private commissions in prestige and did not attract the best minds during this period of experimentation. Giulio Ulisse Arata began building in the Jloreale style in Naples but he returned to Milan in to participate in its booming building industry.
Heeding his former professor Camillo Boito's call for an architecture of national expression, Arata strove to distinguish his work from what he deemed "the enormous hives, the usual unaesthetic and shapeless cubes that they're calling modern constructions. Mosaics glitter in colorful bands, putti hang on drainpipes, and vines spill from its built-in planters. Granite, brick, and molded cement overlap as the artificial merges with the natural. Nothing rests in this building, which tests the limits of compositional orthodoxy.
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Boito's historically based renewal was only a starting point for Arata's design. Arata thoroughly distorted the academic canon with his restless hybridization and his negation of traditional stylistic hierarchies. Arata had published on Byzantine art, the Italian Romanesque, even Sicilian Arabo-Norman architecture, and yet he evoked the past in an entirely ahistorical way.
To many critics, Arata seemed obscure in his meaning, reaching an ungracious restlessness comparable to ugly American building. To others, he succeeded in breaking through the limits of historicism to a modern idiom. Like Piranesi before him, Arata was "a conqueror of academic 29 frigidity," "among the most thoroughly imbibed of the modern spirit" with the capacity to reinvent tradition.
In Italian minds, this freewheeling eclecticism was a way out of Art Nouveau's quandary of rootless internationalism. Arata was also very active in Milan's avant- garde artist community, coordinating exhibitions and publications dedicated to dismantling the arts establishment with clamorous proclamations. Arata led the pack of designers who trusted the intuitive power of fantasy in the reuse of the riches of Italian cultural tradition.
Aldo Andreani reinvigorated the backwater of his native Mantua. Mantua was in decidedly behind the times. The region had been divided by former Austrian rule and was only starting to catch up in the united national economic system. The city's fortifications were leveled and moats filled in; disused waterways and brackish swamps were reclaimed.
A city hospital, communal cemetery, and public housing units were built, the historical municipal seat restored, and the ghetto cleared to make room for institutions of public economy, including the Banca d'ltalia and the new offices for the Camera di Commercio Chamber of Commerce. This last structure, founded by the Austrian Emperor Josef II when he reformed the medieval guilds, was considered a vibrant symbol of Mantua's modern progress.
In young Andreani was commissioned to design the Camera di Commercio, despite the fact he had not yet earned his diploma — a decision owing to his family's prominent local standing, his father's position as city engineer, and Aldo's distinction as Mantua's only aspiring professional architect. He began drafting the design while visiting the world's fair in Rome. The building's program included the grain market, post office, and a caffe. His ground plan follows a regular grid with modules either open or closed, depending on the functions required.
When he returned to Mantua, he reworked the facade with an overlay of heavy Romanesque motifs. He continued to enrich the design throughout the construction process until the placid quality of the original classical arcade was entirely consumed by borrowed elements from other styles. Half-round windows are bisected by slender columns with exotic capitals and outscaled impost blocks that seem like slipped pieces of the arch. The columns do not rest on the windowsills but connect to the ground floor's entablature, which seems pulled up out of line.
Two entirely different stylistic references and conflicting structural modes are held together here in an elastic tension. Classical pilasters were at the last minute replaced with clusters of Gothic colonnettes that end abruptly at the third floor. This historical medley was built in the modern material of reinforced concrete.
Boito, had he lived to have seen it, would surely have disapproved of the indiscriminate mix and the lack of expression of the concrete construction. Like Arata,Andreani elaborated an intuitive artistic process, exploring historical styles to the limits of cohesion, and confronting the problems of a new art with heavy doses of personal expressionism.
Andreani's great talent was the ability to handle diverse styles as if he were modeling sculpture. Eventually he moved to Milan and built for many of Arata's clients. His most acclaimed work there, the Palazzo Fidia of , is a dozen meters from the Berri-Meregalli. Andreani kept alive a figurative, dense, narrative approach to architecture. Gino Coppede spoke in his Tuscan dialect with impetuousness and dash, and his architecture spoke the same language.
The stile Coppede is fantastical, hyperbolic, symbolic, acrobatic, hilarious, and clever. From a family of furniture impresarios, Gino first developed his art designing mantelpieces for aristocratic Florentine residences. He was the first in the family to be interested in architecture, and after earning a degree in decorative arts went on to obtain a second degree in architecture.
An impressionable and wealthy Scotsman, Evan MacKenzie, hired Coppede in to restructure and furnish a simple villa outside Genoa. Coppede vigorously combined fragments of every description, archeological and counterfeit, in this treasure chest. His Florentine sources lose their legibility in his transgressive combinations. Here there is no historical transcription, no medieval idiom, but a fantastical castle. The castle is at once ridiculously miniature and grotesquely gigantic.
Its fifty or so rooms were furnished with the Coppede firm's widest historical revisitations. It is an enchanted city, a Disneyland ready for costume pageants. The designer tapped Piranesi's potential; his rambling interiors writhe with tortuous plays of light, paradoxical structural illusions, and restless surfaces. By the time the Castello MacKenzie was finished, in , Coppede had become famous for his inimitable style. So many commissions for more castles in Genoa poured in that he moved the whole family up from Florence. Florence's old-money clients did not offer the license that Genoa's new-money magnates demanded.
Gino and his brother Adolfo worked indefatigably on a series of palaces and offices, hotels and apartment buildings, even the interiors of Genoa's famed luxury ocean liners. Adolfo, who eventually took over the firm, emulated his brother in everything. His own designs for a children's theme park, the Citta Ragazzofolesca, were not built, but he realized an equally fantastical Moorish theater at the Piazza Beccaria in Florence.
Fairground designs promised the Coppedes great publicity. Gino designed the Genoese pavilion at the exhibition in Milan celebrating the opening of the Sempione tunnel through the Alps. It dramatized the technology of Genoa's port with riveted metal and jutting crane spurs for decoration. Coppede was the principal designer of Genoa's own maritime exhibition of , the only fair design comparable to D'Aronco's of Looking a lot like Adolfo 's Citta Ragazzofolesca, it featured cannons, gigantic projectiles, and hallucinatory effects that flabbergasted the public.
A group of Genoese financiers operating in Rome hired Coppede in to develop the "Quartiere Coppede," an area between the villas Albani and Torlonia. Eighteen luxury palazzi and twenty-seven smaller villas were planned, but only half were built. The Quartiere Coppede is a Castello MacKenzie on a 34 larger urban scale, combining everything that popped into Gino's exuberant mind: Renaissance, Gothic, mannerist, Moorish, baroque, Babylonian.
He confessed of his manner of working, "I get a little carried away. Coppede died suddenly in but not before imprinting his bold, eclectic approach upon the face of contemporary architecture. Artis praecepta recentis maiorum exempla ostendo [I am presenting the exemplars of our forefathers according to the precepts of today's method] reads an inscription on one of his apartment houses.
The idea that Coppede 's work represented a most up-to-date reconciliation of tradition and modernity pervades the enthusiastic criticism it received in its day. With a boom in shipping, industry, and construction — and tycoons eager to show something for it — the city was shaped by a collection of mighty buildings. It was "a grand architectural poem," wrote the aesthetician Mario Morasso in , "that the modern Genovesi are inscribing in stone alongside those left by their opulent forefathers.
The avenue was soon lined with apartment buildings in high-keyed bourgeois taste. The Via XX Settembre was entirely built up in the last eight years of the nineteenth century, two thirds by the energetic contracting firm of Dario Carbone. He worked in the municipal planning office until , when he ventured out on his own, buying lots along Via XX Settembre.
His apartment buildings were the first large- scale use of reinforced concrete in Italy. Inside, they were equipped with all the latest technologies: elevators, central heating, electric lighting and intercom systems, full baths, and kitchens with labor-saving machines. As the port area was modernizing, a group of local businessmen decided to abandon the traditional trading locations down near the waterfront and create a new, dignified home for the merchants' exchange. They purchased the bull-nosed corner site on the Piazza de Ferrari in and commissioned Carbone as architect and contractor.
The vast elliptical trading hall, 33 meters in diameter, fits behind an imposing curved facade. Carbone brought in Gino Coppede's brother Adolfo to decorate the interiors. The rusticated ground floor portico, the double-height window arcade of the upper floors, and the large balustraded cornice reinforce the elevated sense of scale. The roofline bristles with cupolas, gables, and muscular sculpture all molded in a rosy artificial stone. The use of reinforced concrete allowed a relatively skeletal structure and thus greater sculptural play on the wall surfaces; the whole building seems modeled by a dynamic, swirling force.
Carbone and Coppede's work was widely and intensely praised. His building conveyed the energy and enormity of the modern age. Carbone, like his many successful contemporaries, did not relinquish history but indeed relied upon the local legacy of palatial architecture. Modern industrial society should not lose itself in mean utilitarianism, Morasso warned, as he pointed to Carbone s work as the exciting image of the future machine age.
In the burgeoning field of industrial construction, with new building types to define and new technologies to explore, architects pursued modernism freely. Factories around the country, especially in the industrial cities of the north, were constructed in frank manners consonant with Boito's material aesthetic. The Societa Edison of Milan established its first power plant in and illuminated La Scala and the Galleria and helped the cotton, iron, and automobile industries flourish. Camillo Olivetti, who taught electrical engineering at Stanford University, returned to Italy in to make typewriters.
He built an electrically powered plant at Ivrea, hoping it would be a model for transforming the 38 Piedmont region into his ideal of a progressive and humane industrial society. The Olivetti M-l typewriter, presented at the exhibition, was developed exclusively on Italian-held patents. Giovanni Agnelli founded the Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino, the FIAT car company, in Turin and set up his first plant not along the canals but along the train line to the southern Ligurian ports. The portability of electricity freed industrial plants from their water- way locations to spread almost anywhere in the landscape.
Electricity exerted a powerful physical and psychological influence on the lifestyles and imaginations of turn-of-the-century Italians, and the development of large hydroelectric generators, with their dams and locks and tension wires, brought industrial architecture directly into the landscape. He masterminded an environment there with a paternalistic program for a workers' village, comprising semidetached duplex units with gardens, a school, a church, a theater, a cooperative market, houses for the managers, and a castle for himself.
Crespi believed architecture to be beneficial to his enlightened program of productivity. Among Crespi's architects was a brilliant student of Boito, Gaetano Moretti. After a couple of highly regarded competition entries won him wide acclaim, Moretti founded with Luca Beltrami the architecture periodical L'Edilizia moderna, which published large glossy photographs of early examples of Italian modernist work.
In , Crespi hired Moretti to design the Crespi family mausoleum, a project that led to a ten-year association with the industrialist. Moretti was also chosen to design the hydroelectric plant that would supply the Crespi factories. In Crespi's engineers had dammed the Adda at the nearby village of Trezzo, where the river winds around a promontory that is home to the ruins of a medieval castle. The slews pass through the promontory, which Crespi was then obliged to purchase.
Crespi considered the castle remains a nuisance until Moretti encouraged him to add preservation to his patronage program.
In order to blend with the natural surroundings, Moretti had the dam, the locks, and the power plant clad in ceppo, the local limestone material of the castle. Moretti modeled three distinct masses: the turbine hall, the central command 39 post, and an ancillary wing housing back-up steam generators. The volumes rise and fall with a jagged profile that evokes the ruins above, as the architect emphasized in his watercolor presentation rendering. Moretti's beginnings as a furniture maker are seen in the interlocking planes and intricate rhythms. Thick, out-scaled buttresses and heavy vault openings bisected by a single column resemble the plastic accretions of Andreani.
Moretti fused essences of a variety of sources, from medieval to Mesopotamian, Otto Wagner to Angkor Wat. Boito had enthused Moretti with the study of architectural history, but his progeny seems to have gone farther. Not until after the master's death in did Moretti reveal that he thought Boko's excessive rationalization of the design process could never ignite spontaneous aesthetic intuition. Going beyond the study of medieval construction, Moretti challenged the notion of style itself. Gaetano Moretti would remain at the center of Milanese architecture for twenty-seven years as dean of its first independent, legally recognized architecture school, guiding the next generation to a new architecture.
The electricity generated at Crespi's plant powered the greater Milan area, now ringed by industrial development. Traffic was a major issue; for decades various commissions and officials had been contemplating the replacement of the city's train station. In during the Sempione tunnel exhibition, the cornerstone for the new Stazione CentraleViaggiatori was laid — before a competition had been held, much less a design selected. Arrigo Cantoni won the competition that followed, but engineers soon discovered that his structure was not feasible.
A second competition was announced in , with a program that called for a transverse galleria for general circulation and a giant shed. This time the winner was an expert in Roman monumentality Ulisse Stacchini. These were not wildly innovative works, but they demonstrated Stacchini's profound knowledge of historical models. Stacchini's winning station design was a deft fusion of Roman classicism, floreale ornament, Parisian 40 Beaux-Arts volumes, and the abstraction of the Viennese school then in vogue all in one reinforced concrete structure. His planning for the vast program, however, was infallible.
When world war interrupted the colossal undertaking for nine years, Stacchini used the time to refine his drawings. The changes he made are significant and they show how quickly tastes of the period shifted. Iron elements were covered up and curved forms eliminated for a more cubic quality. As built in , the building includes more ornament, but it is also fully integrated into the architectural lines.
Indeed, the ornament accentuates the overall molded plastic effect. Stacchini introduced to the station a fantastical Assyro-Babylonian quality well suited to this gargantuan construction. Limestone and tinted cement subsume the station in a richly conceived architectural language. The shed behind is indeed one of Italy's finest. Its five slender iron vaults, meters long, were developed independently by railroad engineers without Stacchini's input.
They brought the tracks in several meters above street level to avoid interrupting the cross streets and commercial development underneath. The problem of getting passengers up to the tracks was resolved fluidly in Stacchini's unique plan. A galleria meters long and wider than any city boulevard spans the entire facade at ground level, allowing people to come to the station under a giant porte-cochere.
The term galleria was used to deliberately recall Mengoni's great public space downtown. A vast, vaulted ticketing hall within is comparable in dimensions to Grand Central Terminal in New York and is flanked by waiting halls and staircases that rise up through to a second parallel pedestrian galleria at the tracks' heads. Some American influence seems to have played a decisive role in shaping this project.
Like Grand Central, "the monumental gateway to a great city," as the article read, Stacchini s project had a striking monumental effect. There are sculptures of winged horses of Progress led by Will and Intelligence, medallions and statues symbolizing Work and Commerce, Science and Industry, War and Peace, and enamel panels with panoramic views of Italian cities: Rome qz seen from the Vittoriano, Turin's Mole Antonelliana, Florence from the Piazzale Michelangelo. And everywhere there is a machine-pressed quality to the smooth monochrome surfaces.
The Stazione Centrale of Milan exudes the terrifying gigantism of modern industrial society. Stacchini gives us a churning force, the aestheticized product of the Sempione tunnel's boring machines rolling into town. The station brings to mind contemporary cinematographic visions, such as Cabiria of , set in colossal cityscapes. The sublimely scaled rooms offer glimpses of impossibly vast space. When the station was conceived in , a local critic exclaimed,"It is no longer possible to think of a simple shed for a building of substantial mass and importance that a train station needs to be for a great city, a symbolic monument par excellence, since it responds to the most characteristic phenomenon of modern life, intense movement.
It presents a solemn invitation to a metropolis and should give the visitor a first impression of well being, wealth, beauty and refinement of taste. The Stazione Centrale was inaugurated on 1 July , and the city sang its factory sirens to welcome the latest monument to modernity. Stacchini and the other fantastical architects are scarcely treated in histories of early-twentieth-century architecture.
They have been dismissed by later critics as embarrassing retardants to modernism, the tired aftereffects of a washed-out and unrealized Art Nouveau experiment, a confusion of eclectic minds. Examining their work carefully in context, it is clear that these Italian architects built with a firm gaze on modern issues. They balanced antirational intuition with impeccable technical skill to create poetic expressions of the industrial world. These remained mostly on paper in lavish portfolios published by the architects. They intended to defend the creative aspect of the architectural design process against encroachment of engineers in the building industry.
What made the architecture of the so-called neo-eclectics successful in its day was their expansive sense of scale, marked 43 theatricality, unprecedented experimentation, and enigmatic interpretation. For a young industrial society inventing its own imagery, their powerful yet ambiguous scenographies were seductive. Their incessant dialog with history oscillated between nostalgic mythologizing and calculated negation, but either way historical monuments remained touchstones for Italian architects.
In his review of the culture of architectural competitions, Luigi Angelini wrote, "There exists a reawakening and a renewal in the artistic vision of these new works and it promises a vigorous rebirth for the future, a vigorous rebirth of an Italian architecture, free from ties to foreign imitations and less enchanted by bonds to a past despite its being refulgently glorious. His technical training secured him a job with a canal company and then the municipal engineering office, but Sant'Elia felt the calling of architecture.
He enrolled at the Brera, where he took courses in scenography, perspective drawing, and, eventually, architecture with Gaetano Moretti. He was taught to divine the essences of architectural composition from historical examples, but Sant'Elia rejected the discipline of the academy. The system of architectural education in Milan had remained essentially unchanged since Napoleon's time. The Brera, like academies of fine arts across Italy, offered an introductory curriculum in descriptive geometry, perspective, and chiaroscuro, architectural elements for ornato, literature, and history of art, followed by a two- or 44 three-year specialization in historical styles, theory, and composition.
The advent of industrial materials and mechanical processes in the s had been at first perceived, understandably, as outside the purview of an academy of arts, so a separate school of civil engineering, called the Politecnico, was established in Milan. The institutional distinction between the Brera and the Politecnico reinforced a dichotomy in Italy between architectural design and engineering construction.
Train stations and most apartment houses manifest this dichotomy in the clear division of interior structure versus exterior decoration. Camillo Boito, whose theory addressed exactly this separation, attempted to reconcile the artist of the academy and the engineer of the polytechnic. He encouraged cross-enrollment and a coordinated curriculum by which engineers got some exposure to artistic issues and architects kept abreast of advances in technology. Boito was unable in his lifetime to confront the legal deficiency of the academy degree, Professore di disegno architettonico, which did not authorize its recipient to build.
After earning the design diploma, an architect would then pick up the necessary builder's qualification in applied engineering, for example, at Rome's Scuola d'Applicazione per Ingegneri, where Guglielmo Calderini taught. Sant'Elia relied on his trade school diploma for his low-level but lucrative jobs in engineering firms, yet never earned his design degree at the Brera. In , however, he passed the exams at the academy in Bologna, after being tipped off that they were easier there.
Sant'Elia had an extraordinary talent for assimilating visual material, but it was not matched by a verbal confidence. Evidently, he pored over illustrated periodicals of the moment, taking in Sommaruga's and Moretti's latest works. Josef Hoffmann's austere architecture may have suggested the classic essences that Moretti's teaching advocated. Sant'Elia was everywhere cribbing from everyone. Back in Milan he tried competitions and assisted Arrigo Cantoni on his entry for the train station, but nothing was moving for Sant'Elia, so he pursued his own personal research in hundreds of small drawings.
He ruminated on current themes like reinforced concrete construction 45 or power plants, transposing motifs and exploring, for example, ideas of his own for the Milan train station. His free, intuitive sketches surge with energy as they negotiate the program's many challenges: the problematic change of level, its dynamic traffic flow, the need for monumentality.
His research developed rapidly, working through issues new and old in no particular order. Towering compositions recall Romantic notions of architecture and landscape. Forced perspective views from very low angles and tight crops are the tricks of pictorial representation Sant'Elia learned in the Brera scenography classes. Soon, the naturalism of the mountain drawings gave way to fully artificial landscapes of smooth uninflected surfaces, interpenetrating stereometric volumes, like the factories and silos in German and American periodicals.
These drawings communicate an abstract dynamism that lies just below the surface of Gaetano Moretti's work. By Sant'Elia was fantasizing on hydroelectric power plants and the dams and slews associated with them. Massive diagonal buttresses of a turbine hall lean against a mountainous concrete dam. Functionally gratuitous but aesthetically powerful smokestacks are drawn with energetic lines that shoot beyond the boundary of their forms. This saturated, intuitive response to electricity obliterates historicism and dismantles the traditional notion of style altogether.
This constitutes Sant'Elia's most daring proposal. Sant'Elia did not think in plan; he never learned to. He conceived these perspective views perhaps in hopes of publishing them. Sant'Elia's rather bleak prospects brightened when Giulio Ulisse Arata got him involved in a group exhibition in February Sant'Elia exhibited eleven drawings, the first public showing of his expressionist train stations and power plants.
Naturally, Arata himself publicized the show in his magazine. He demonstrates with a few strokes how a building to house turbines, a viaduct, a church, an electrical plant should be constructed; and although industrialized, they are always composed of firm pictorial masses never interrupted by vulgar decorations. It was obvious to Arata that Sant'Elia had been studying Otto Wagner, but he had so thoroughly digested the Viennese influence that he had obtained "the true fusion of architecture, its structural goals with its practical utility.
Arata signed Sant'Elia up for another exhibition in two months' time with his new group, Nuove Tendenze, and Sant'Elia quickly developed futuristic visions of whole cities. In May at the Famiglia Artistica, the Milanese art gallery notorious for provocative exhibitions, a show opened with "a lively and insolent flash of color that seems aimed to unsettle the public," one of the organizers, Ugo Nebbia, proclaimed. Paintings of the dock cranes in Genoa's port, the strange forms of Coppede's maritime exhibition there, and an interior of the Pirelli factory made up a rambunctious display from artists, Nebbia wrote, eager to thrust their enthusiastic visions of the industrial world upon the public.
In contrast to the more virulent artistic groups of the moment, like the Futurists, the Nuove Tendenze was indeed rather moderately toned. The catalog of the show included a short introduction to Sant'Elia's drawings, dubbed the "Messaggio" by later scholars, that was signed by Sant'Elia. It must be new, as our state of mind and the contingencies of our historical moment are new. In modern life the process of coherent stylistic development in architecture has been arrested.
Architecture breaks from tradition and by necessity begins all over again. Reinforced concrete construction could not be ruled by classical tradition. Modern society was now associated with the Galleria, not the Duomo. The days of monumental funereal and celebratory architecture are over. Architecture must be something better and more vital, and in order to obtain this extra something we must begin by doing away with monuments, sidewalks, porticoes, steps, by sinking streets and piazzas, raising the level of the city, and rearranging the crust of the earth in order to render it at last a servant to our every need, our every whim.
Nebbia, however, may have provided the strident language. The architects of Sant'Elia's circle did not commonly make verbal declarations. Their promotional monographs usually have a single page of introduction, penned by others, that often does not correspond closely to the images. The Messagio is full of provocation and paradox typical of the rhetorical style of rival groups like the Futurists.
The text is tailored to Sant'Elia's very latest series of drawings, produced especially for the Nuove Tendenze show, his Citta nuova collection. Sant'Elia had developed in two months an entirely new manner of drawing. His "modern house like a gigantic machine" is a stepped-back construction, a casa a gradinata, of load-bearing concrete masses and tensile metal trusses.
Elevators are set outside against the receding diagonals of the terraces and connected on each floor by ever longer bridges. The roof is loaded with machinery, radio transmission towers, and illuminated billboards. Set back to back, the two towers are connected by a passage vaulted by a parabolic arch and glazed like a galleria. Many architects, from Arata to Pirani, were experimenting with new exterior articulations of apartment blocks, but Sant'Elia's primary stimulus here seems to have been French: Sauvage and Sarazin's "maison a gradins," published in the March issue of L'lllustrazione italiana.
Sant'Elia, who never drew interiors, copied Sauvage 's distinctive section from the article but he did not proceed as Pirani would in an investigation of interior apartment dispositions; he was merely interested in the exterior effects. The Citta nuova series had explosive implications for the traditional city. The street wall was dissolved and the ground level churned up. The street itself became a tumultuous abyss, a scaleless space with funiculars, elevators, and trams speeding by. Intersecting circulation systems, pedestrian viaducts, highways, subways, and high- speed rail lines dig down into the ground, throwing up, as Sant'Elia described, catwalks and conveyor belts.
Films sold on their erotic content also represent a challenge for critical discourse. Michele Giordano finds earlier antecedents in two films by Blasetti: Europa di notte and Io amo, tu ami So the useful tracing of the erotic through 45 Le fortune del melodramma, ed. Indeed, the conclusions of such research would have applications in the study of more mainstream or critically-validated film texts: that is, they might allow us to account for and interrogate processes of communal appreciation and canon-formation that themselves have traditionally taken place within homosocial environments.
In any case, Nocturno and Profondo Rosso and their ilk provide resources not just on erotic cinema but on Italian genre production more generally, sometimes in paral- lel to, but mostly anticipating scholarly production. See pp. Mention should also be made here of studies of genres of filmmaking that have been less commercially visible, such as the documentary discussed above , or that seem to have no robust tradition in Italy, such as the musical.
While the whole is more comprehensive than profound, it succeeds in mapping a field of enquiry. I mention the book because it is an example of the especially strong presence in the publishing on stars of what I have referred to as cult historicism, a celebratory mode of description which lacks both political and theoretical reflexivity.
Two volumes on Anna Magnani by Matilde Hochkolfer partially bear this out. It is this legacy of critical disdain that must distinguish a study of these two from that of the critically as well as popularly vali- dated Magnani. The ambiguous status of their subjects means that Bertolino and Ridola have taken on a complex task. The volume is, however, essentially descriptive, though packed with information and filmographies.
As with all the Gremese volumes it is liberally illustrated, here with stills and backstage snapshots. Examples include works on Fantozzi, the middle-aged inetto bureaucrat incarnated by Paolo Villaggio, who also wrote the books upon which the series of films were based, and on Monnezza, the crude Roman cop played by the Cuban actor Tomas Milian who appears in a group of films made over a decade from the mids. He provides an entry on each of the ten films, describes their relationship with the books, and analyses the development of the saga, including the progressive disappearance of its political content.
There is also a section of inter- views, including one with Paolo Villaggio himself. The book has a slim bibliography and lacks a sufficient theoretical apparatus the author tends to quote his university lecturers but it is a valid point of departure for the study of a character who is part of the cultural chattel of every Italian. How- ever, publications like this one are where we must begin in the study of popular material: they communicate what the Italian spectator knows, help us to clarify the appeal of comedy personages in a given period, and offer material for the analysis of fan culture itself.
Un Americano a Roma, ed. The tireless Pallotta is also responsible for the volume on Fantozzi, Mostruosamente… Fantozzi Rome: Un mondo a parte, Such studies have tended to be made of higher status production, and could be said to fall within the much longer tradition of the questione della lingua. It is a fragmentary volume, part history part attempt to claim its object as a component of Italian cultural heritage.
The idea of cinema as heritage is implicit also in the very many and scattered pub- lications describing the presence of a given region or city in Italian cinema or vice versa , sometimes in the form of guidebooks, sometimes as coffee-table volumes, and less often as serious works of analysis. Sogno di un paesaggio tra cielo e acqua, ed.
The first half of the book is concerned with setting up the terms of the study, ranging widely over aesthetic philosophy and film history, and defining a methodology of stylistic analysis distinct from either cultural studies or the neoformalist approach. The book has two parts: the first is a report of the responses from those surveyed; the second is a series of analyses of these results by different authors.
Several of the latter, in their recurrence to psychoanalytic para- digms, implicitly evince discomfort with the empirical approach upon with the book is posited, but it is the suspicion of the spectator herself that is most striking. This is in fact a useful volume in which Macchitella, a powerful figure, had much of interest to say about the industry and the relation of cinema and television. Taken from Repetto and Tagliabue, Vecchio cinema paradiso, p. The book presents the result of research commissioned by ANEC Associazione Nazionale degli Esercenti Cinematografici and is replete with tables and statistics.
The author provides a brief survey of previous economic histories, pointing out the ideological limitations of her forebears; but she declares a special debt to the work of Christopher Wagstaff who, even if he styles himself an evangelical aesthete in his most recent work, is the revered guru of the economic history of Italian cinema even in Italy itself. Con qualche dollaro in meno devotes a chapter to the history of the audience in Italy that explicitly refutes the commonplaces about the passive, philistine spectator that survive in the volumes by Repetto and Tagliabue.
De Gaetano finds little that escapes this taxonomy if not his own preferred Deleuzian mode. The book also contains statistics on the consump- tion, distribution, and exhibition of films by year from to , as well as a mostly Anglophone bibliography. It also contributes to the stuttering historiography of the technology of the Italian cinema which is an important and under-researched part of the history of the industry. A comprehensive introduction to this aspect of Italian cinema has, to the best of my knowledge, yet to be written; the volumes in the Carocci collana cast light on particular, sometimes rather narrow aspects.
The book contains instead just two shorter studies: Luca Mazzei writes on the use of masking inside the frame in early cinema; Federico Vitella writes on aspect ratios in the s, especially the use of cinemascope. Il cinema a basso costo in Italia negli anni sessanta contains, on the other hand, many shorter pieces by various authors on topics from sound technology in the genre pro- duction of the period to low-budget promotion and trailers, and once again an article on formats.
Il cinema a basso costo in Italia negli anni sessanta, ed. Two volumes collected by Marcello and Alessandro Gatti fur- nish an anecdotal bilingual Italian and a clumsy English translation chronicle of cinematographers told through quotation from writers, critics, and from the techni- cians themselves. Abetti, Antonio and Abetti, Giorgio Antonio was born in San Pietro di Gorizia, Italy.
A civil engineer, he turned to astronomy and became director of the observatory in Arcetri and professor of astronomy at the University of Florence. His main interest was positional astronomy, observation of minor planets, comets and star occultations. In he observed the transit of Venus across the Sun's disk through a spectroscope.
His son, Full Text Available This article describes the role of paramount importance played by Antonio Maceo y Grajales as General Agent of the Provisional Government, one of the less studied and known roles of this preeminent patriot of our wars of independence. It also reviews tourist opinions of site-specific sustainability aspects and assesses differences between tourist types and their perceptions of sustainability.
The ecological. This paper explores how educators would raise different questions about educational issues by using Karl Marx's framework, Antonio Gramsci's conception, and Michel Foucault's notions, respectively. First, the paper compares the historical perspectives of Marx and Foucault. Marx concludes that history is a progressive linear production and that…. World Heritage Sites, which continue to be subject only to U. Inclusion in The water flow in the CRP pipeline at Naco is reduced from a Date Filed: May 29, Name of Project Total mean densities of benthic macroinvertebrates for the three sites ranged from to 10, organisms per square meter.
The most abundant macroinvertebrates were the class Insecta insects. Total densities of periphyton ranged from 2, to , cells per square millimeter. Cyanophyta blue-green algae and Bacillariophyta diatoms were the predominant periphyton organisms. Total densities of phyto- plankton ranged from 5, to 47, cells per square milliliter. Blue-green algae accounted for more than one- half of the phytoplankton in each sample. Hardness ranged from to milligrams per liter as calcium carbonate, and alkalinity ranged from to milligrams per liter as calcium carbonate.
The largest dissolved nitrite concentration was 0. The largest total phosphorus concentration was 0. Total aluminum and total iron were the only trace elements in water to exceed the reporting threshold by large concen- trations. Total aluminum concentrations ranged from 70 to micrograms per liter, and total iron concentrations ranged from 70 to micrograms per liter. Lead was the most prominent trace element in bottom-material samples, with concentrations ranging from 30 to micrograms per gram. In achieved the title of professor in the Child Neurology Clinic.
His numerous trainees and Residents - from to - held today key positions in Brazilian Child Neurology. Specifically, we looked at the abnormal balances reported in trial balances prepared by the Defense Finance and Accounting Service San Antonio Wastewater characterization of the community ' Antonio Maceo' of the Oriente University. The main environmental problems of the Universidad de Oriente are associated with the emission of uncontrolled and untreated solid and liquid waste to the environment. In this paper we evaluate the physico-chemical and microbiological wastewater university community Antonio Maceo, determining environmental parameters of highest incidence.
The waters are neutral and proper salinity. They have gray color, odor and cloudy appearance, without the presence of floating material. The organic matter content is above discharge limits and detected total and fecal coli forms. Some studies This repeated, mild stressor provides a model of daily or frequent Response in Rats. Physiology and Behavior, 63 4 , Garcia , A. Recovery of the. This paper is a study on Gabriel Garcia Marquez's great masterpiece One Hundred Years of Solitude, which is a very famous "magical realism" novel.
Garcia Marquez is a Nobel Prize winning author of Colombia and he wrote novels, both long ones and short, the background of which was an imaginary village town "Macondo". It was very smilar to Aracataca, Garcia Marquez's hometown in northern Colombia. The images of not a few characters and episodes of this novel were from his real hometown.
How does one author undertake writing about another—not only in terms of recounting the story of a life, but also the singularity, the inner truth of a human being? Emozioni e sentimenti secondo Antonio Damasio. Full Text Available My essay reconstructs the broad outline of Antonio Damasio's thought, with particoular reference to his book Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow and the Feeling Brain , where Damasio describes from a neurobiological point of view human feelings and emotions.
In doing that, he highlights how most of the main outcomes of contemporary neurobiological research confirms Spinoza's conception about feelings and emotions Ethica, Guo, F.
A New Guide to Italian Cinema
Ozone O3 is one of the most important trace species within the troposphere and results from photochemistry involving emissions from a complex array of sources. Ground-level O3 is detrimental to ecosystems and causes a variety of human health problems including respiratory irritation, asthma and reduction in lung capacity. However, the O3 Design Value in San Antonio , Texas, was in violation of the federal threshold set by the EPA 70 ppb, 8-hr max based on the average for the most recent three-year period To understand the sources of high O3 concentrations in this nonattainment area, we assembled and deployed a mobile air quality laboratory and operated it in two locations in the southeast Traveler's World RV Park and northwest University of Texas at San Antonio of downtown San Antonio during summer to measure O3 and its precursors, including total nitrogen oxides NOx and volatile organic compounds VOCs.
Additional measurements included temperature, relative humidity, pressure, solar radiation, wind speed, wind direction, total reactive nitrogen NOy , carbon monoxide CO , and aerosol composition and concentration. A key to our understanding is to combine model results with measurements of precursor gases, particle chemistry and particle size to support the identification of O3 sources, its major formation pathways, and how the ozone production efficiency OPE depends on various factors. The resulting understanding of the causes of high O3 concentrations in the San Antonio area will provide insight into future air quality protection.
Full Text Available This article presents preliminary conclusions from research on the books read by Antonio Gramsci in the prison library. Although he had only a few books by Marxist authors at his disposal, Gramsci still was able to face the most important issues of his time. In addition, the article argues that in his Prison Notebooks, Gramsci analyzed these books and their publishers as a means of showing the link between culture and the public.
Water quality modelling in the San Antonio River Basin driven by radar rainfall data. Full Text Available Continuous monitoring of stream water quality is needed as it has significant impacts on human and ecological health and well-being.
S T R A V A G A N Z A: LA MEDICINA DEI BARBARI
Estimating water quality between sampling dates requires model simulation based on the available geospatial and water quality data for a given watershed. Precipitation data from both rain gauges and weather radar were used to force the SWAT simulations. Virtual rain gauges which were based on weather radar data were created in the approximate centres of the sub-watersheds of the San Antonio River Basin for SWAT simulations. This method was first tested in a smaller watershed in the middle of the Guadalupe River Basin resulting in increased model efficiency in simulating surface run-off.
The study showed that the proper use of weather radar precipitation in SWAT model simulations improves the estimation of missing water quality data. Antonio de Noronha, Captain General of the Captaincy of Minas Gerais, wrote during his government that began on May 28, is a remarkable set of documents not only about the government of Minas Gerais, but also about important administrative authorities of that period. Written by the governor D. Hydrosweep swath-bathymetry and seismic-reflection data reveal the morphology, sedimentary processes, and structural controls on the submarine San Antonio Canyon.
At a breach in the outer ridge, the canyon makes a sharp turn into the San Antonio Reentrant. Emergence of an obstruction across the head of the San Antonio Reentrant has trapped sediment in the mid-slope segments of the canyon. The development of the San Antonio Canyon was controlled by the impact of a subducted seamount, which formed the San Antonio Reentrant and warped the middle slope along its landward advancing path.
Incision of the canyon landward of the outer mid-slope ridge may be ascribed to a combination of headward erosion and entrenchment by captured unconfined turbidity currents. Flushing of the canyon was likely enhanced during the lowered sea level of the last glaciation. Where the canyon occupies the triangular embayment of the reentrant at the base of the slope, sediment has ponded behind a small accretionary ridge.
On the trench floor opposite the San Antonio Canyon mouth, a m-thick levee—overbank complex formed on the left side of a distributary channel emanating from a breach in the accretionary ridge. Axial transfer of sediment was inhibited to the north of the San Antonio Canyon mouth.
Metallothionein and heavy metals in daphnia pulex from Jose Antonio Alzate reservoir. Water and specimens of the freshwater cladoceran Dhapnia pulex were collected at 4 different sites located in an area influenced by industrial, agricultural and urban activities in the Jose Antonio Alzate Reservoir in two different seasons.
The Jose Antonio Alzate Reservoir fed by the Lerma river is the first significant water reservoir downstream of the main industrial areas in the State of Mexico. There are about 2, industrial discharges between the river source and the Alzate Reservoir which makes the Lerma river and the Jose Antonio Alzate Reservoir the most contaminated water bodies in the State of Mexico. The Monitoring National Network recognises these waters as highly contaminated, especially in the zone located between the Mexico-Toluca highway and the Alzate Reservoir. Metallothioneins MT were determined by silver saturation method.
Tissue concentrations of MT in Dhapnia pulex varied between 5. The conflict against institutions dragged the nation into a state of impending civil war, resulting in the population mood a daily sense of dread. In this specific episode comes up the criminal picture of Antonio Chichiarelli: Red Brigades fan, neo-fascist, informant, document forger for the Magliana gang and performer of the fake n. The essay purpose wants to highlight the possible operating links that may have happened between the roman underworld, the Red Brigades and security agencies inside an event still pervaded by several and unsolved issues.
El objetivo de esta tesis doctoral es el estudio de la forma en las sonatas de Antonio Soler El Cap. Situation related to the woman home violence in patients from the "Julio Antonio Mella" polyclinic. Cuerpos invadidos : cuerpo y corporalidad en algunos relatos de Antonio Di Benedetto. Planning a new library building provides an opportunity for the staff to rethink their philosophy of service.
- Through the Storms: Help From Heaven When All Hell Breaks Loose.
- Map of italy | Article about Map of italy by The Free Dictionary.
- Must Be on Roids : A Weight-Training Manual!
Of paramount concern and importance is the need to convey this philosophy to the architects. This paper describes the planning process and the building's external features, interior layouts, and accommodations for technology. Details of the move to the building are considered and various aspects of the building are reviewed.
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyze the specificities in the thought about Aesthetic Education present in Jose Antonio Portuondo. There are exposed elements of the point of view that the Cuban intellectual has about Aesthetic Education from an updated approach, and linked to his idea of building a better society, based on justice and ethic.
The research process was conducted through historical-logic and hermeneutic methods. The value of this work lays on it goes deep in the intellectual contribution of Portuondo to the national culture and the Cuban philosophical thought. In , during the renovation of the library, we found boxes containing letters, reports, papers, scientific notes, circulars, conference proceedings, astronomical data collections, books, maps, invoices, balance sheets, obituaries, pictures and spectrograms, drawings and journal cuttings.
The archival material spanned the years from to the early s. However, for the time being, only Giorgio Abetti's correspondences are being considered about items. In addition, a complete bibliography of Antonio and Giorgio Abetti's publications have been prepared so it is possible to complete the reconstruction of both personalities. Praha, Even though related to Brazilian constructivism, Antonio Manuel's artistic production has remained unique, and, sometimes, radical.
This article examines the particularities of his work, mainly from the point of view of its relations to neoconcretism's postulates. Construction of Charisma during the Civil War. The charismatic thing like carrier of an essence transcendente appeared in a dual way between the exaltation of Franco, the Caudillo, hero recognized as political chief for his warlike exploits, and the worship in memory of Jose Antonio , prophet dedicated to the death as redeeming sacrifice of Spain.
Azevedo, Renata L. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the tiles placed on the walls of the Franciscan convent of Santo Antonio Recife-PE and to obtain information about the several expansions and structural reforms performed on the convent by dating the bricks. The dating of the bricks was performed using the Thermoluminescence TL technique.
Pb OH 2 ], used since the ancient times until the twentieth century, while the dominant element of the blue pigment is Cobalt CoO. Al 2 O 3 , that has been used from until nowadays. The TL dating of bricks indicate that there were walls with different periods of construction, being one built around , with a deviation of 28 years, whereas other was built later, around , with a deviation of 15 years.
These results provide new data towards understanding how and when the Recife Franciscan Convent of Santo Antonio was designed and built, contributing to other research works presently underway on site. Carnaval de Sodoma de Pedro Antonio Valdez: retratos y vestiduras travestis. Cross-dressing and queer identities constitute themes that are ignored and neglected by the literary critic that the novel Carnaval de Sodoma , by Dominican writer Pedro Antonio Valdez has had until now.
We will rethink notions such as gender and sexuality, usually established by the heterocentered thought as fixe and immutable entities. Na oficina-base do Projeto, intitulada Universidade, os extensionistas foram instigados para responder qual o papel da Universidade e que papel a Universidade deveria ter na sociedade brasileira.
El cardo, el ave y la verdad. In addition, his aerial views can be compared with Impressionism. His works trigger the admiration both from a technical and a human point of view. By the interviews, the public is aware of the humanity of this genius as well as the meaning and the final intention of his work. Antonio Gramsci. Macchiavelli, socialisten Karl Marx og den liberale italienske filosof Benedetto Croce. The early architectural "functionalist" Neoclassicism introduced in the Papal State by the genius of Vanvitelli, with his early works in the Marches, had defined a new design language and a particular simplified taste in architectural decorum, played on the widespread use of clay enriched with essential emphases stone, which will affect the architectural production in the Marches to beyond the eighteenth century.
The Napoleonic invasion will shake the backwardness of the state papal introducing new modern principles of land management and planning, mapping and cadastral new tools, new types of architecture-related services, new roles assigned to public engineers and architects. Linearity, proportion and good taste became theoretical assumptions; constructive correctness and rational correspondence between functions and plans became the yardstick; a serene simplification of forms constantly connected to the economic program was married with recovery of the classical models and Vitruvian read back through the mediation treatises of Vignola and especially of Palladio.
All news largely implemented after the Restoration of the Papal rule, where the professional figure of Antonio Mollari, after his exploits in the new Stock Exchange Building in Trieste, is inserted in the vein of architectural Purism. It was "more than a passing circumvention the neoclassical experience", it was a final declination of the broader cultural movement of the European neoclassical, by now exhausted, placed in a few decades, until the papacy of Pius IX, and before the next eclectic anthology of historical revivals.
It's the first time that the spanish Government proposes a candidate for the Direction of this international research center. These Red Knots are on their way north, from ''wintering'' areas in Tierra. From these studies, it was possible to investigate the formalization process in each work, constructing the comprehension around the literary structures and the aspects surrounding the essence of the novels.
Rodriquez V. An historical account is given of movements toward educational finance reform in Texas, culminating in the Rodriquez v. San Antonio Independent School District case and its aftermath. The role of political pressures applied by various interest groups is traced and the prospects for future reform assessed.
This article aims to "modernize" the current legal debate over inequitable public school funding at the state and local level. Rodriguez" established precedent, allowing for property-tax based education funding programs at the state-level--a major source…. The samples were analyzed by combining multielemental studies with structural details, including heating to very high temperatures. No systematic trend was observed as a function of the sampling points.
Along the Gulf Coast of Texas, many estuaries and bays are important habitat and nurseries for aquatic life. San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay, located about 50 and 30 miles northeast, respectively, of Corpus Christi, are two important estuarine nurseries on the southern Gulf Coast of Texas fig. Population growth has led to greater demands on water supplies in Texas. To assist in the determination of freshwater inflow requirements, the U.
Automated instrumentation and acoustic technology were used to maximize the amount and quality of data that were collected, while minimizing personnel requirements. The movement of water between the bays is. Lifescience Database Archive English. Full Text Available virus ext gene for puta Reference: [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive. See also H ICD E Perez-Cerda C, Garcia Full Text Available Audio Twister. Garcia - Vallejo , D. Case report. Wandering spleen and gastric volvulus. Pediatr Radiol.
PubMed Google Scholar. Melikoglu M, Colak T, Kasasoglu. Two unusual cases of wandering spleen requiring splenectomy. Eur J Pediatr Surg. CACFP to provide cash reimbursement and commodity assistance, on a per meal basis, for food service to Plantation and Utopia are the main topics. Essays from La isla que se repite allow us to examine his wish to link his work to other traditions by means of a long rodeo through the rich Caribbean cultural matrices. It was his way to escape and transcend "nation" authoritarian discourse prevailing in modern Cuban history. Composed by the musician Leonardo Balada and the playwright Antonio Gala, this opera was commissioned by the Sociedad Estatal Quinto Centenario as part of the festivities organized by the Spanish government to commemorate the Discovery of America.
However, the opera was cut at the last minute. This article asserts that such alteration may have been the result of political censorship attempting to counteract the criticism of the Discovery of America contained in the original version. Full Text Available This essay focuses on the portraits painted by Antonio Mancini Rome, during his stay in Dublin, in autumn For the Irish intellectuals he met in Dublin Mancini became a symbol of individuality, humility and sincerity. En esta entrevista nos habla de esta obra y de la ciencia cognitiva en general.
Drawings for an exacting author: illustrations from Giovanni Antonio Scopoli's "Deliciae florae et faunae insubricae". Giovanni Antonio Scopoli was one of the most versatile naturalists in eighteenth-century Italy. In , Scopoli conceived the ambitious publication, "Deliciae florae et faunae insubricae". Appearing in installments, this included descriptions and illustrations of plants, animals and minerals found in northern Italy. Unfortunately, Scopoli's sudden death halted publication of the "Deliciae" after its third installment.
Recently, a corpus of 98 paintings, in the gouache style, were discovered in the Biblioteca Universitaria of Pavia. These gouaches appear to be the basis for plates planned in future installments of the "Deliciae". Marginal notes in Scopoli's handwriting are included. Because Scopoli's plant and animal specimens have been destroyed or dispersed, these drawings are crucial for reconstructing his scientific opus.
Combined with other documents, Scopoli's marginal notes also reveal his exacting standards. He criticized the way his artists had poorly rendered the scientific details of the paintings. Such nucleus consists for Rosmini in the possibility of developing an a priori reasoning, different from the ontological one, be it in its Anselmian, Cartesian or Leibnizian form, which would justify the validity of the other proofs and the fascination exercised by the ontological argument. Can the visual manifestations participate critic and reflexively of the great debates of the public space? Usually, during the first years of military regime, the plastic arts believed in this participation, and this faith sustained the public, oppositional and collective activity of the Brazilian vanguards.
Movimento estudantil 68 was produced in the political effervescence peak of student movement, but it was exhibited for the public in the first days ofAct Institutional number 5. Thus, this art work will be understood here as a discursive plot, a crossing between history and visuality. His interest for the press shows at his stage of student in the National Institute of France, but won't be up to , at his return to Madrid, when he proves his talent for the organization and journalistic administration on The Mercury and on the Gazette de Madrid.
Later on, being manager of the Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid, he shares the management of the Semanario de Agricultura y Artes, and, finally, in establishes and directs the Venezuelan Correo del Orinoco. Abstract This. El universo de estudio estuvo constituido por pacientes. Introduction: high blood pressure affects the health of populations at world scale. By itself represent a disease and a risk factor for other cardiovascular affections. Its impact is on the epidemiology, public health areas and in the economic feature. Objective: to determine the institutional cost of the patient care with hypertensive crisis.
Foram entrevistados residentes adultos de ambos os sexos, junto com os quais foram coletadas as plantas, depositadas no Herbarium Rioclarense HRCB. This work describes an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Santo Antonio do Leverger Municipality, Mato Grosso State, Brazil and estimates the diversity of species with therapeutic use.
Adult dwellers, male and female, were interviewed and plant gathering undertaken with their assistance. Isotopic and chemical analysis o water produced by 14 springs in the San Antonio El Bravo, Chihuahua, Mexico geothermal area, were carried out in order to establish the geochemical characteristics of the groundwater and to know their interaction with deeper geothermal fluids. We made two samplings of water and gases in and The chemical composition of waters produced by the springs in of sodium-bicarbonate-chloride type.
It was found, according to the Na:K:Mg relative content, that most hot springs are located in the partial equilibrium zone, whereas the lowest temperature hot springs shift toward the groundwaters domain. The temperature estimated from gas geothermometry was degrees celsius. The Agua Roque spring is located in the line of meteoric waters. Analysis of metals was carried out too, the concentration of gold element is 0.
The arsenic element was not detected but the concentration of the boron element is high for irrigation use 2. Chihuahua, Mexico, fueron realizados con el fin de conocer las caracteristicas geoquimicas del acuifero somero y su interaccion con fluidos geotermicos. Se realizaron 2 muestreos tanto de agua como de gases en y En ambos muestreos se encontro que la composicion quimica del agua de todos los manantiales es del tipo bicarbonatado-clorurado-sodico. De acuerdo con el contenido relativo de Na:K:Mg el agua de los manantiales mas calientes. Automated vehicle identification tags in San Antonio : lessons learned from the metropolitan model deployment initiative : unique method for collecting arterial travel speed information.
This report demonstrates a unique solution to the challenge of providing accurate, timely estimates of arterial travel times to the motoring public. In particular, it discusses the lessons learned in deploying the Vehicle Tag Project in San Antonio , Environmental Protection Agency — This is a line feature dataset showing the track of petroleum and oil fuel lines that transport hazardous fluids from Apra Harbor through the Antonio B.
Won Pat In the interview below, Hardt and Negri consider the constitution of the multitude as a political agent, discuss the structure of their book and support concepts seen as crucial for the comprehension of our time, such as biopolitics and biopower. A nearly threefold increase in demand for water in the square-mile San Antonio Creek valley in California during the period has increased the potential for overdraft on the ground-water basin. The hydrologic budget for this period showed a perennial yield of about 9, acre-feet per year and an annual ground-water discharge of about 11, acre-feet per year, comprising net pumpage of 7, acre-feet, phreatophyte evapotranspiration of 3, acre-feet, and base streamflow of 1 , acre-feet.
The base flow in San Antonio Creek could diminish to zero when net pumpage reaches 13, acre-feet per year. The environmentally sensitive marshland area of Barka Slough may then become stressed as water normally lost through evapotranspiration is captured by pumpage. The aquifer consists of alluvial valley fill that ranges in thickness from 0 to 3, feet.
Ground water moves seaward from recharge areas along mountain fronts to a consolidated rock barrier about 5 miles east of the Pacific coast. Upwelling of ground water just east of the barrier has resulted in the acre Barka Slough. Transmissivity of the aquifer ranges from 2, to 34, feet squared per day, with the lowest values occurring in the central part of the valley where the aquifer is thickest but probably finer grained.
The salinity problems are increasing in the agricultural parts of the valley, which is east of the barrier. West of the barrier, stream and ground-water quality is poor, owing to seepage of saline water from the marine shale that underlies the area at shallow depths. A proposed basinwide monitoring program includes 17 water-level sites, 12 water-quality sampling sites, 3 streamflow measuring sites, and periodic infrared aerial photography of Barka Slough.
A computer model of the ground-water flow system could be developed to assess the impact of various water-management alternatives. Il senso delle cose nei film. Full Text Available Antonio Scarpa fue un gran anatomista y cirujano del siglo xviii y principios del xix. Physical inactivity and related health consequences are serious public health threats.
Effective strategies to facilitate and support active-living opportunities must be implemented at national, state, and local levels. ALCSA adopted governance standards, increased knowledge of physical activity and health, and engaged in an month collaborative master plan writing process. ALCSA selected overarching strategies and evidence-based strategies for each societal sector and adapted strategies to the local context, including tactics, measures of success, and timelines.
Community and expert engagement led to a localized plan reflecting national recommendations, the Active Living Plan for a Healthier San Antonio. Multisector collaborations among governmental agencies and community organizations, which were successfully developed in this case to produce the first-ever local adaptation of the NPAP, require clearly defined expectations. Lessons learned in ALCSA's organizational and plan development can serve as a model for future community-driven efforts to increase active living.
- Under the Radar: A Novel?
- Manypedia - Comparing Linguistic Points Of View (LPOV) of different language Wikipedias!.
- African Encounter.
La Historia social de la cultura escrita. IBACOS worked with builder Imagine Homes to evaluate the performance of an occupied new construction test house following construction of the house in the hot, humid climate of San Antonio , Texas. The project measures the effectiveness of a space conditioning strategy using a multihead mini-split heat pump MSHP system in a reduced-load home to achieve acceptable comfort levels temperature and humidity and energy performance.
IBACOS collected long-term data and analyzed the energy consumption and comfort conditions of the occupied house after one year of operation. Although measured results indicate that the test system provides comfort both inside and outside the ASHRAE Standard range, the occupants of the house claimed both adequate comfort and appreciation of the ease of use and flexibility of the installed MSHP system. IBACOS also assisted the builder to evaluate design and specification changes necessary to comply with Zero Energy Ready Home, but the builder chose to not move forward with it because of concerns about the 'solar ready' requirements of the program.
Lectores retratados: Antonio Berni y las visualidades de lo impreso en la cultura argentina. This proposal arises from the need to improve the crystallization process tacho 5 of that area, since it has no automation, that is, everything is done manually, which will bring undoubtedly a quality improvement the final product. The structure and control system variables are defined, proving the feasibility of the proposed solution.
The essential result of the work involves the submission of a proposal of automation that has the structure of a control algorithm, taking into account the requirements, technical resources for implementation, the variables that must be observed and processed, as well as elements of final action; the respective field instrumentation is proposed, to perform satisfactorily the control with the minimum possible investment. Banderas's career trajectory from to coincides with larger political and historical developments.
He arrived in Hollywood in the early s, a moment when different but interconnected historical events came together— the end of the Cold War and the neo-liberal globalization of the United States with treaties such as NAFTA and GATT; the growing public profile of the fundamentalist religious right and gays; and the mainstream population's unwilling acceptance of Latinos as a differentiated community.
Hollywood needed a new kind of masculinity that gathered in all these new dimensions of United States identity while not completely shedding traditional Hollywood male typology, and Banderas fulfilled all the requirements. At the same time in Banderas Spain acquired a global card of presentation for its new neoimperialist and Atlantic pursuits in Latin America. Su objetivo es conmover y despertar en la mente del espectador una cadena de asociaciones.
Yet the abstruse character of this poetic writing prevents readers from drawing straightforward political truths about Spanish history from the poem. Losses are inscribed in the text catachrestically, as they truly are: losses. Final report. The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the San Antonio National Topographic Map NH are presented.
The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium, and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data.
The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also. In the Viceroy of Sicily Ettore Pignatelli, Count of Monteleone, started a significant campaign for the strengthening of the outworks of the main cities located along the Sicilian coast: Palermo, Trapani, Milazzo, Siracusa and, after a few years, also Messina. Full Text Available In the complex conjuncture of the end of Spanish century, Antonio de Hoyos has been identified traditionally as an atypical member of decadent movement.
But its narrative is something more than an old fashioned and eccentric intention to take decadent literature to Spain. It is necessary to locate to Pedro in a position that this surpasses the routine classification like "erotic narrative".
When I analyze the thematic components based on the general scheme of the decadent literature, I can define the specific nature of this novel, that it is not other than being a Spanish accomplishment of a decadent way of the European narrative. Attractiveness of botanical infusions to ovipositing Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. Field experiments were conducted on the Fort Sam Houston Military Reservation, San Antonio , TX, in fall to observe the attractiveness of selected botanical infusions to ovipositing female mosquitoes.
The following infusions were tested in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention gravid traps: Bermuda grass Cynodon dactylon , oak leaf Quercus virginiana , acacia leaf Acacia schaffneri , rabbit chow alfalfa pellets , and algae Spirogyra sp. Four Bermuda, acacia, oak, and algae of the 5 infusions were effective in collecting Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. Of the 4 infusions, Bermuda collected the greatest number of the mosquitoes sampled. Female Aedes albopictus mosquitoes were collected in moderate numbers during this study. Background: the first molars are among the first teeth affected by dental caries.
Their premature loss leads to occlusion disorders. Objective: to determine the status of the first permanent molars in first-, fourth- and sixth- grade students from the Jose Antonio Saco elementary school in Cienfuegos. Report on investigations in fiscal on the basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation. Heritage objects.