Here, this stands for as much as nothing: here, nothing more or less than earlier should be pleaded, but it should be declaimed with the stress that was spoken from the mouths of our fathers. The whole sentence could be somewhat improved with a slight alteration of the harmony, as in Examples IX and X. The singer closes the preceding sentence in G minor.
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In that he expects this chord in the accompaniment, it is barely touched and immediately afterwards a chord is struck whose E major foundation is quite removed from G minor. This causes the singer to be unable to hit either the first D or the second G. Man findet dieses in den Telemannischen und Scheibischen Recitativen genau beobachtet. The unnatural metric weight on the last syllable of kretischen would be avoided in the following form see Example XIII and would show the singer that she should quickly pass through words which have no striking meaning.
Singers, of course, do not feel more than composers. Das erste ist aus der Cantate Apollo amante di Dafne. Apollo ruft, als er die Verwandlung gewahr wird. The first is from the cantata Apollo amante di Dafne. Apollo cries out when he becomes aware of her transformation. See Example XIV. Graun makes use of these very often, principally for the expression of astonishment and rising joy. See Example XV. So too is the following example from the opera Demofonte. Hingegen bey folgender Stelle S. After the D in the bass in the second measure, an E minor chord is expected.
At the end of this conversation, he hears an entirely unfamiliar name. A thousand agonizing visions assail him all at once. His father demands an explanation. This is strong evidence that in short passages harmonies that easily follow each other create a much better effect than remote harmonies and entangled harmonies. Perfect cadences in the recitative voice with which a complete period can be closed are the following in major and minor:. Yet since not every period is a final period, but rather is often more or less joined to the following one, composers should pay great attention here so that they only apply this closing cadence when the line of speech formally closes or when the following line of speech depicts an entirely different sentiment from the preceding one.
Otherwise one is satisfied with the simple cadence of the recitative voice and with one of the rests following it , at which the accompaniment strikes either a simple triad or sixth chord. Through this, the end of the period is created, and with it the expectation for a following one. Since the sentiment of the discourse is generally the same, then these final cadences should have also been avoided and should have been treated as advised. The remaining closes of the section are only made noticeable in the recitative voice, since the sentiment of the discourse remains the same.
This is defined by striking the dominant chord in the accompaniment after the cadence in the recitative voice and, instead of having a tonic chord be heard after it, having another more or less remote key—according to its expression—come in at once. For example, instead of. So ist z.
All of these cadences are of a passionate expression. Yet one may be more or less appropriate than others for this or that expression. For example,. In Opern, wo Personen von verschiedenen Affekten mit einander recitiren, sind dergleichen Cadenzen unentbehrlich. It would be extend this account too much to give examples for each mentioned progression. The works of good song masters like Graun, Handel, and Hasse are full of them. In operas where characters of various affects recite with each other, these cadences are indispensable. Beginners must direct all their attention to them—especially to the sense of the words—and to the alternating sentiments of the reciting characters.
Also one should be careful that no masculine cadence be given a feminine ending, as in. Selbst Graun ist einigemal in diesen Fehler gefallen; z. Errors are commonly committed concerning this. Graun himself has fallen occasionally into this error, for example. Die Art, mit welcher man bey der Frage in diesen Accord tritt, nemlich:.
The harmony to be used as accompaniment to this figure of speech has long been agreed upon. The dominant chord already has a unique quality that arouses a desire for something to follow. The manner in which this chord is reached by step at a question. This treatment, however, should only be used with questions where the main word and the actual question tone are located at the end of the sentence.
They also give all questions either a masculine or feminine ending without disparity. Through this, absurdities arise that even a pupil ought to be able to feel and recognize as that. Not to mention that the grammatical accent often falls on an incorrect syllable because of this, so that an entirely different and, from time to time, an entirely contradictory meaning is given to the question sentence.
Three examples on the same words can be seen in Example XXX. In Example XXXIII, the composer let the question mark following the sentence tempt him to apply a musical question that not only is falsely accentuated but that does not happen there at all, since a supposition with the little auxiliary word ob [whether] is still no clear question. Rather this question should have taken place with the words wer kann es wissen?
Der Hr. Ein Arioso, das sich mit der Frage endiget:. In his Abhandlung the author gives reasons that are neither important nor correct and that can be easily argued against with the most valid counterarguments, if one had reason to fear that this style would take hold.
An arioso that concludes with this question:. Often only a leap to the main word in the recitative voice is needed, with all kinds of harmonies in the accompaniment. No one should think to repeat needlessly questions or other lines of speech in recitative without the same sorts of intensification of expression. The accompanying harmony must set the tone of the emotion. In the following Examples in XXXV, which serve as an explanation of the eleventh rule, exclamations of varying character also appear.
All that is needed is to hold his recitative up against that of others to be convinced of this. Statt eines f. Instead of marking a f , one often sets nothing but simple quarter notes with quarter rests in the accompanying bass instead of half notes [Zweyviertelnoten 77 ], and then, whenever the affect becomes softer or more sorrowful, lets the bass enter piano with a long note with tenuto written above it, which, depending on the passage and location, has a tremendously good effect.
Often a single long note can be the entire arioso, against which the bass adopts a metrically regular motion; but often it is also longer. Da diese Oper sehr rar geworden ist, und Beyspiele dieser Art selten sind, so wird es vielleicht einigen nicht unangenehm seyn, das Recitativ hier zu finden, da es nicht lang ist. Die Begleitung der Violinen und der Bratsche ist in dem obersten System zusammengezogen.
Since this opera has become very rare, and examples of this type are scarce, it will perhaps not be objectionable to reproduce the recitative here, as it is not long. Selbst in Recitativen ohne Accompagnement war Telemann ein eiteler Mahler; man sehe z. Telemann, even in recitatives without accompaniment, was a vain painter; for example, one may see how a Christian must walk along the rough path and is happy while crying. The composer must understand this emotion to text-paint if he wishes to move through his music.
Here, where Graun reaches us in the deepest region of our souls with the correct portrayal of the most intense emotion, Telemann opens up the ground, climbs into the tombs, and allows our forefathers, in the viola, to climb into the light. Here only the composer is heard, and exactly where one least wants to hear him. Scheibe, in his Abhandlung , finds it good to make the final cadences of the bass alternate with masculine and feminine cadences. Der erste Theil; Von dem Recitative, durch Jos. Rinpel [sic], Regensb. Part 1, on Recitative. Sulzer, an epistle can be found with his two tragic cantatas, in which recitative in general is discussed.
Scheibe von Recitativ im 11ten und 12ten Bde. Der Bibl. Deutsch, im 4then Bde. Krause Im 7ten Hauptst. Werks, Von der musical.
Marpurg Unterr. Vom Recitativ, in 20 Forts. Im 2ten Bde. Planelli Im 8then [sic] Kap. Cepede Im 2ten Buche s. Poetique de la Musique, Ch. Scheibe, cited by H. Matthew L. Third Street Bloomington, IN mlboyle indiana. Sulzer editions. Sulzer, Johann Georg. Reprint of 2nd ed. Olm, Graun, Carl Heinrich. Der Tod Jesu. Unpublished manuscript score. B Rameau, Jean-Philippe. Castor et Pollux. Scheibe, Johann Adolph.
Copenhagen and Leipzig. Treatises and commentaries. Agnew, Vanessa. Oxford University Press. Agricola, Johann Friedrich. Anleitung zur Singkunst. George Ludewig Winter. Algarotti, Francesco. Marco Coltellini. Elementa Harmonica. Andrew Baker, — Cambridge University Press. Baird, Julianne C, ed. Baker, Nancy Kovaleff, ed. Introductory Essay on Composition. Yale University Press.
6 The Sixteenth-Century Prodigal Son: A Multiple Mirror
Rudolstadt and Leipzig, — Baker, Nancy Kovaleff, and Thomas Christensen, ed. Bauman, Thomas. Benjamin, Walter. Illuminations, trans. Harry Zohn, ed. Leon Wiseltier. Brown, Clive. Classical and Romantic Performing Practice: — Bryennius, Manuel. In Opera Mathematica. John Wallis. Sheldonian Theatre. The Harmonics of Manuel Bryennius,. Rijksuniversiteit te Groningen. Buelow, George J. Calella, Michele. Capella, Martianus Felix.
De Nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii. In Antiquae musicae auctores septem, 2 vols. Marcus Meibomius, 2: — Lodewijk Elzevir. Christensen, Thomas. Nancy Kovaleff Baker and Thomas Christensen. Eckert, Stefan. Flaherty, Gloria. Opera in the Development of German Critical Thought. Princeton University Press. Gerber, Ernst Ludwig. Gjerdingen, Robert O. Music in the Galant Style. Grant, Roger Mathew. Fevre and Ribou. Harriss, Ernest Charles.
A diss. Hauge, Peter. Helm, Ernest Eugene. Music at the Court of Fredrick the Great. University of Oklahoma Press. Jerold, Beverly.
Catalogue – book list alphabetically | L
Koch, Heinrich Christoph. Musikalisches Lexikon. Frankfurt am Main. Kramer, Richard A. Krause, Christian Gottfried. Von der musikalischen Poesie. Marpurg, Friedrich Wilhelm. Olms, Mattheson, Johann. Der vollkomene Capellmeister. Christian Herold. Mathiesen, Thomas J. Mirka, Danuta.
Sixteenth Century Pamphlets Online / Flugschriften Online
Mirka, Danuta, ed. Oxford Handbook of Topic Theory. Neumann, Frederick. Palisca, Claude V. Franz Steiner Verlag. Parthey, Gustav. Planelli, Antonio. Donato Campo. Riepel, Joseph. Emerich Felix Baders Buchladen. Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Dictionnaire de Musique. Scheibe, Johann Adolf. Schulz, Johann Abraham Peter. Dittersdorf in Nr. Seite und Beschluss. Sherrill, Paul, and Matthew Boyle. Skapski, George J. Stahl, William Harris, and Richard Johnson. Martianus Capella and the Seven Liberal Arts, v. Columbia University Press. Telemann, Georg Philipp. Der Tag des Gerichts.
Max Schneider. Hans Grosse and Hans Rudolf Jung. Vial, Stephanie D. Waldura, Markus. Olms Verlag. Wilson, Dora J. I am particularly indebted to Tina Muxfeldt and Paul Sherrill for their generous and insightful advice. Return to text. The following edition and translation parts 2 and 3 of this article are combined as a side-by-side text.
All paragraphs in the edition and translation correspond to identically numbered paragraphs in their parallel section e. For some recent work drawing on Sulzer, see Christensen , Mirka , Mirka , and Grant Issues of authorship are discussed in greater detail in the section Author s below. Both were founding members of the Berliner Montagsklub, joint collaborators on the journal Kritische Nachrichten aus dem Reiche der Gelehrsamkeit , and briefly shared a living space Flaherty , The author of this passage feels strongly that such moments are absurd, yet is confused by the musical success that they can have when set by an arioso texture.
In this context rhythm [Rhythmus] refers to the punctuation of musical time with caesuras called Ein - and Abschnitte. See n. Rhythm [Bewegung] here refers to a more general sense of rhythm than in rule 1 above, denoting the collection of rhythmic values e. Schulz, Kirnberger, and even the composer Johann Friedrich Agricola may have had a role in its creation, see Author s below.
This can be observed in the opening paragraphs of the third section. Here, rule 1 on the general rhythmic and metrical properties of recitative is paired with the closely related subject of rule 8 on the use of rests. In other words, the musical segmentation of the poetic text should either correspond to complete linguistic ideas, or, if length forces musical segments to appear more frequently due to the constraints of the style, dissonance ought to be used as a way of coordinating musical closure with semantic closure.
A partisan summary of the Scheibe-Bach debate can be found in Buelow Marpurg , See paragraph 1. Denmark contained a sizable German-speaking minority during the eighteenth century, with the Danish Crown controlling territory as far south as the Duchy of Holstein, which bordered the Hanseatic city of Hamburg and was then part of the Holy Roman Empire. During this time, German was a significant minority language with well-established intellectual communities in the Danish realm and capital. For more on German cultural activities within the Danish realm see Flaherty —23 and Hauge These recitative schemas contrast with and form a complementary practice to those described in Gjerdingen See Appendix 1 in Sherrill and Boyle 42— Telemann typesets all musical examples in original clefs.
To revive the ash of an unfortunate brother, To pull him from the tomb, to stop me from descending into it; To triumph over your fire, to be his support, Is to show that you are worthy of him To Jupiter himself. In the opera Castor et Pollux on page 61 where Telaire replies to Castor , the following words with their notes are found at the conclusion of their conversation or Recitatif.
Sulzer —74 and Schulz — Much of the following summary of the authorship situation of Sulzer articles is indebted to Jerold Jerold also notes this passage , Compare with Mattheson The cypher for the anonymous contributors to the AdB is first published in Parthey See Bauman for an overview on musical articles in the AdB. Denn in beyden Kantaten, finden wir dergleichen nicht.
In general Einschnitt and Abschnitt are used to indicate relative perceptibility of musical closes, with the Einschnitt being rather weak sometimes only marked by a brief melodic break and Abschnitt only slightly stronger with some harmonic support. Sulzer contrasts a standard Fraktur typeface with both Roman type for non-German words and a rounded Fraktur for emphasis or quotation. I use italics to mark passages with Roman type except for the names of harmonies and quotation marks to indicate passages printed in the rounded Fraktur script. Page numbers for the edition appear in brackets within the text.
Omnis vox in duo genera dividitur: continuum atque divisum. Continuum est velut juge colloquium: Divisum, quod in [ divisum ]. Est et medium, quod in utroque permixtum, ac neque alterius continuum modum servat, nec alterius frequenti divisione praeciditur, ut pronunciandi modo carmina cuncta recitantur. Horum illa, quam in divisas partes certasque deducimus, diastematica nominantur, et ei parti, quae Harmonica vocatur, aptanda est. Capella , All voice production is divided into two categories: continuous [ continuum ] and discrete The continuous is found in flowing conversation; the discrete is used in singing [modulatione].
There is an intermediate form [ medium ], having elements of both; for it neither adheres strictly to the continuous variation of the one nor is discretely varied in modulation like the other. It is the form which is used in the recitation of poetry. The form that is subject to precise variations is called diastematica and is appropriate to the branch called harmonics.
Translation based on Stahl and Johnson , Manuel Bryennius was an early 14th-century mathematician, astronomer, and music theorist associated with the Byzantine court. His Harmonics was transmitted to the West through various translations of the original Greek into Latin during the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries. John Wallis, a celebrated thinker of the 17th century, was a mathematician and philologist. Sulzer here is alluding to the tone accents of ancient Greek orthography.
For more on Bryennius as a music theorist in the Greek tradition see Mathiesen Continuus igitur vocis motus ille est, qui remissions atque intensiones inconspicuas efficiens, sensui non videtur consistere, usque dum ad silentium prevenitur. Walliss , I would call continuous that motion of the voice which—ascending or descending continuously—seems to the ear not to pause anywhere before it stops altogether. Bryennius , 85; Although this term once had great currency in oration, music, and dance, Sulzer reports that in modern i.
Ramler, Der Tod Jesu , No. Thus the best recitative is the one where one sings the least. Note that Rhythmus , as discussed above in n. In the human voice and wind instruments, this process is carried out by the tones slurred together [schleifenden] being intoned through an unbroken breath. Table 6 above. See Graun The accented status of the first syllable is obliterated by its placement on the fourth beat of both measures. This in-text example is printed with an obvious error in all three Sulzer editions consulted. Instead of resolving to a first-inversion minor tonic, the Sulzer publications show the following resolution:.
There, he proposes a change in the conventional contour of recitative in order to have questions conform to the intonation of the German language, at least as he understood it. Scheibe provides twelve musical examples to illustrate both good and bad question figures 1: This is an archaic German-language term for half notes. The continuously active accompaniment to this recitative frequently compels the singer to metrical rigidity.
See Riepel and Scheibe See Grimarest and Grimarest — See Marpurg See Planelli All rights reserved. Items appearing in MTO may be saved and stored in electronic or paper form, and may be shared among individuals for purposes of scholarly research or discussion, but may not be republished in any form, electronic or print, without prior, written permission from the author s , and advance notification of the editors of MTO. Exceptions to these requirements must be approved in writing by the editors of MTO, who will act in accordance with the decisions of the Society for Music Theory.
This document and all portions thereof are protected by U. Imagine if Herr Ramler had set the following passage of recitative in a lyrical poetic meter, against his own instinct, to please a composer: Unschuldiger!
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Thou innocent, just man! Breathe out thy weak, tormented soul! Neither chains nor ropes, I see Pointed wedges ——Jesus reaches out his hands, His dear hands whose labor was charity. Du zagst? Ach seht! Dost thou hesitate? See ye! His heart flies from its cave in labor. His sweat flows deep red from his temples. Nur in dem einzigen Vers then, I think, the arioso could be kept as Graun wrote it. Example III click to enlarge and see the rest [2. Return to beginning. Velitatio in apologiam Philippi Melanchthonis. Vom Abendmahl Christi Bekenntnis. Vom Gebet. Auslegung des Von der Einigkeit der Kirchen.
September Wunderbarlich und wahrhaftig Gesicht, so neulich gesehen. Assertio sacrorum quorundam axiomatum, quae a nonnullis nostri saeculi pseudo-prophetis in periculosam rapiuntur controversiam. Ausschreibung eines heiligen, freien christlichen Concilii. August des Jahrs aufgerichtet ist worden. Bericht der Kranken. De eversione Europeae prognosticon. Der Psalm, durch Mar[tin] Luth[er] ausgelegt. De raptu epistolae privatae et praefixa illi criminatione.
Der hunderterste Psalm ausgelegt. Der Juden Badstub. Der neu deutsch Bileams-Esel. Der Papstesel. Disputatio circularis contra Concilium Constantiense et suos confessores.
Sulzer’s “Recitativ”: Edition and Translation
Ein christliche Predigt von Erhaltung gemeines Friedens, die Religion betreffend. Ein Sermon auf Matthaei 22, vom Zinsgroschen. Ein Sermon auf Matthaei xxii. Vom Zinsgroschen. Errettung der beschuldigten Kelchdieb vom neuen bugenhagischen Galgen. Expositio fidelis de morte Thomae Mori et quorundam aliorum insignium virorum in Anglia. Formulae quaedam caute loquendi de praecipuis Christianae doctrinae locis. Lebendige Abcontrafactur des ganzen Papsttums. Practica auf das Practica der Pfaffen.
Anfang und Ausgang des ganzen Papsttums. Practica deutsch auf das Responsio ad Petri Cursii defensionem nullo adversario bellacem. Von der heiligen Taufe Predigten. Was die Pestilenz an ihr selbst sei, mit ihren Ursachen und Arzneien. Wer aller Rotten, Sekten und unchristlicher Lehre ein Ursach sei. Antwort auf die Schriften, unter Eckerlings Namen ausgangen.
Apologia, das ist: Ein Verteidigungsrede wider die Lutheristen. Christianae fidei a Huldrycho Zvinglio praedicatae expositio, ab ipso Zvinglio paulo ante mortem eius ad Regem Christianum scripta. Commentarius captae urbis ductore Carolo Borbonio. Bulle der Bestimmung und Ansetzung des heiligen gemeinen Concilii. De miserabili Monasteriensium anabaptistarum obsidione, excidio, memorabilibus rebus in urbe gestis epistola.
De vera oboedientia oratio. Dialogi lectu dignissimi, in quibus impiae Iudaeorum opiniones evidentissimis argumentis confutantur. Einritt Kaiser Carlen in die alte kaiserliche Hauptstadt Rom den 5. Aprilis Evangelium et epistola secundum Pasquillum, Romae in adventu Caesaris edita. Exemplum protestationis, qua Caesarea Maiestas usa est apud Romanum Pontificem, collegium Cardinalium, legatos regum ac principum De clade Turcarum a Sophi accepta De recenti montis Aetnae incendio.
Pasquilli veritatis defensio. Praktik deutsch auf das Prognosticatio ad vicesimum quartum annum duratura ad Ferdinandum Roman[um] Regem conscripta anno xxxvi. Prognosticon auf das Propugnaculum ecclesiae adversus varias sectas huius tempestatis. Tres epistolae sanctissimi martyris Ioannis Hussii e carcere Constantiensi ad Boemos scriptae.
Werbung und Hilfbittung an gemeine Eidgenossen, zu Baden im Aargau versammelt Zeitung von der Eroberung Kopenhagen. Zwo Predigt[en] vom Zorn. Acta, wie sich es zu Eisleben begeben hat. Ad Fridericum Nauseam de futuro oecumenico concilio epistolae. Luther an das Concilium zu Mantua hat lassen ausgehen. Bulla de indulgentiis contra Turcam. De moribus veterum haereticorum et quibus illi hac aetate affinitatem habeant. Paulo oder vom Glauben und Werken der Christen. Disputatio, quam absolvit dum ageret Constantiae, priusquam in carcerem coniceretur.
Eine erschreckliche Neue Zeitung von einem grausamen Ungewitter, so sich zu Heidelberg in diesem Jahr erhoben hat. Pol, der Stadt Montreuil und St. Illustrissimi ac potentissimi regis senatus populique Angliae sententia de eo concilio, quod Paulus Episcopus Romanus Mantuae futurum simulavit. Libellus de moribus veterum haereticorum nunc denuo recognitus. Methodus concordiae ecclesiasticae post omnium sententias a minimo fratre monstrata, non praescripta.
Oratio suasoria ad Carolum imperatorem et Franciscum Galliarum regem de pace et concordia inter ipsos constituenda. Pasquillus novus, Romae his diebus loco solito exscriptus, de rebus Caroli tractans. Sermo pro felici victoria adversus infideles habita in ecclesia Metropolitana Pragen[si]. Turcicarum rerum commentarius.
Verdeutschte Verrufung des Anstands in Picardien, zu Lyon beschehen. Novembris Von den verboten[en] Heiraten und Blutschanden Unterricht. Wahrhaftiger Unterricht etlicher Handlungen, die sich Papst Pauli des dritten Concilii halben, das er gegen Mantua bestimmt hat. Jahrs widerfahren. Zucht-und Polizei-Ordnung. Ad Pont[ificem] Romanum et Christianos principes epistola. Anzeigung, was sei das wahr christenlich und lebendig Evangelium.
Dialogus Huttenicus. Confutatio libelli cuiusdam Luneburgi occulto adfixi, quo scriptor ille usum unius speciei in Sacramento conatur ex scripturis et patribus probare. Consilium delectorum cardinalium et aliorum praelatorum de emendanda ecclesia. Contra portentosas quasdam et antinomicas positiones de vera poenitentia. De bello Turcis inferendo oratio. De immensa dei misericordia erga Germanos. De iniustis processibus Iudicii Camerae Imperialis protestatio et petitio.
De iniustis processibus Iudicii Camerae Imperialis protestatio et petitio principum in causa verae religionis. Des Papsts Hercules wider die Deutschen. Dialogorum libri duo quibus aliquot ecclesiae Catholicae dogmata Lutheranorum et verbis et sententiis roborantur.