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Unlimited One-Day Delivery and more. There's a problem loading this menu at the moment. Learn more about Amazon Prime. Back to top. Skeletal muscle fibers help support and move the body and tend to have peripheral nuclei. Smooth muscle cells control involuntary movements such as the peristalsis contractions in the oesophagus and stomach. Strain is an injury to a muscle in which the muscle fibers tear as a result of overstretching. A strain is also colloquially known as a pulled muscle or torn muscle. The equivalent injury to a ligament is a sprain.

Sprain is damage to one or more ligaments in a joint, often caused by trauma or the joint being taken beyond its functional range of motion. The severity of sprain ranges from a minor injury which resolves in a few days to a major rupture of one or more ligaments requiring surgical fixation and a period of immobilisation.

Sprains can occur in any joint but are most common in the ankle and wrist. Joints are the place where two bones meet or connect. Cracking Joints sound is not yet fully understood, it is mainly attributed to nitrogen or carbon dioxide bubbles building up between the joints. Ligament are a short band of tough, flexible, fibrous connective tissue that connects two bones or cartilages or holds together a joint. Tendon is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.

Tendons are similar to ligaments; both are made of collagen. Ligaments join one bone to another bone, while tendons connect muscle to bone. Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue , rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints , and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.

It is not as hard and rigid as bone, but it is stiffer and less flexible than muscle. Meniscus is a crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous anatomical structure that, in contrast to an articular disk, only partly divides a joint cavity. In humans they are present in the knee, wrist, acromioclavicular, sternoclavicular, and temporomandibular joints; in other animals they may be present in other joints.

Scaffold helps cells repair torn meniscus in lab tests. Sports Injury are injuries that occur in athletic activities or exercising. In the United States there are about 30 million teenagers and children alone that participate in some form of organized sport. Repetitive Strain Injury is an "injury to the musculoskeletal and nervous systems that may be caused by repetitive tasks, forceful exertions, vibrations, mechanical compression, or sustained or awkward positions.

Body Smart nerve damage Bursitis is the inflammation of one or more bursae small sacs of synovial fluid in the body. They are lined with a synovial membrane that secretes a lubricating synovial fluid. There are more than bursae in the human body. The bursae rest at the points where internal functionaries, such as muscles and tendons, slide across bone.

Healthy bursae create a smooth, almost frictionless functional gliding surface making normal movement painless.

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When bursitis occurs, however, movement relying on the inflamed bursa becomes difficult and painful. Moreover, movement of tendons and muscles over the inflamed bursa aggravates its inflammation, perpetuating the problem. Muscle can also be stiffened. Massage - Physical Therapy - Pain Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly. Muscles in the Body Breathing - Lungs Respiratory System is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for the process of respiration in an organism. The respiratory system is involved in the intake and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an organism and the environment.

In air -breathing vertebrates like human beings, respiration takes place in the respiratory organs called Lungs. The passage of air into the lungs to supply the body with Oxygen is known as inhalation, and the passage of air out of the lungs to expel carbon dioxide is known as exhalation; this process is collectively called breathing or ventilation.

In humans and other mammals, the anatomical features of the respiratory system include trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, and diaphragm. Molecules of oxygen and carbon dioxide are passively exchanged, by diffusion, between the gaseous external environment and the blood. This exchange process occurs in the alveoli air sacs in the lungs. VO2 max. Respiration in physiology is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. The physiological definition of respiration differs from the biochemical definition, which refers to cellular respiration , a metabolic process by which an organism obtains energy in the form of ATP by oxidizing nutrients and releasing waste products.

Although physiologic respiration is necessary to sustain cellular respiration and thus life in animals, the processes are distinct: cellular respiration takes place in individual cells of the organism, while physiologic respiration concerns the diffusion and transport of metabolites between the organism and the external environment.

In animals with lungs, physiological respiration involves respiratory cycles of inhaled and exhaled breaths. Inhalation breathing in is usually an active movement. The contraction of the diaphragm muscle cause a pressure variation, which is equal to the pressures caused by elastic, resistive and inertial components of the respiratory system.

In contrast, exhalation breathing out is usually a passive process. Breathing in, brings air into the lungs where the process of gas exchange takes place between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries. The process of breathing does not fill the alveoli with atmospheric air during each inhalation about ml per breath , but the inhaled air is carefully diluted and thoroughly mixed with a large volume of gas about 2. Physiological respiration involves the mechanisms that ensure that the composition of the functional residual capacity is kept constant, and equilibrates with the gases dissolved in the pulmonary capillary blood, and thus throughout the body.

Thus, in precise usage, the words breathing and ventilation are hyponyms, not synonyms, of respiration; but this prescription is not consistently followed, even by most health care providers, because the term respiratory rate RR is a well-established term in health care, even though it would need to be consistently replaced with ventilation rate if the precise usage were to be followed. Spirometer or Pulmonary Function Testing is an apparatus for measuring the volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs.

A spirometer measures ventilation, the movement of air into and out of the lungs. The spirogram will identify two different types of abnormal ventilation patterns, obstructive and restrictive. There are various types of spirometers which use a number of different methods for measurement pressure transducers, ultrasonic, water gauge.

Pulse Oximetry. Pulmonary Function Testing evaluation of the Respiratory System. Plethysmograph measures the functional residual capacity FRC of the lungs. Functional Residual Capacity is the volume of air present in the lungs at the end of passive expiration. Empty Nose Syndrome is people who have clear nasal passages experience a range of symptoms, most commonly feelings of nasal obstruction, nasal dryness and crusting, and a sensation of being unable to breathe.

Otorhinolaryngology ear, nose, and throat ENT Airway Resistance is the resistance of the respiratory tract to airflow during inspiration and expiration. Airway resistance can be measured using body plethysmography , which is an instrument for measuring changes in volume within an organ or whole body usually resulting from fluctuations in the amount of blood or air it contains.

Asthma is a common long term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs. Congestion Colds Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome is a sleep disorder characterized by airway resistance to breathing during sleep. Lung Volumes refer to the volume of air associated with different phases of the respiratory cycle. Lung volumes are directly measured; lung capacities are inferred from lung volumes. The average total lung capacity of an adult human male is about 6 litres of air.

Tidal breathing is normal, resting breathing; the tidal volume is the volume of air that is inhaled or exhaled in only a single such breath. The average human respiratory rate is breaths per minute at birth , decreasing to breaths per minute in adults. Lungs are the primary organs of respiration in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.

In mammals and most other vertebrates, two lungs are located near the backbone on either side of the heart. Their function in the respiratory system is to extract oxygen from the atmosphere and transfer it into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere, in a process of gas exchange.

Respiration is driven by different muscular systems in different species. Mammals, reptiles and birds use their musculoskeletal systems to support and foster breathing. In early tetrapods, air was driven into the lungs by the pharyngeal muscles via buccal pumping, a mechanism still seen in amphibians. In humans, the primary muscle that drives breathing is the diaphragm. The lungs also provide airflow that makes vocal sounds including human speech possible. Humans have two lungs, a right lung and a left lung. They are situated within the thoracic cavity of the chest.

The right lung is bigger than the left, which shares space in the chest with the heart. The lungs together weigh approximately 1. The lungs are part of the lower respiratory tract that begins at the trachea and branches into the bronchi and bronchioles and which receive air breathed in via the conducting zone. These divide until air reaches microscopic alveoli, where the process of gas exchange takes place.

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Together, the lungs contain approximately 2, kilometres 1, mi of airways and to million alveoli. The lungs are enclosed within the pleural sac which allows the inner and outer walls to slide over each other whilst breathing takes place, without much friction. This sac encloses each lung and also divides each lung into sections called lobes. The right lung has three lobes and the left has two. The lobes are further divided into bronchopulmonary segments and lobules.

The lungs have a unique blood supply, receiving deoxygenated blood sent from the heart for the purposes of receiving oxygen the pulmonary circulation and a separate supply of oxygenated blood the bronchial circulation. The tissue of the lungs can be affected by a number of diseases, including pneumonia and lung cancer. Chronic diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema can be related to smoking or exposure to harmful substances.

Diseases such as bronchitis can also affect the respiratory tract. In embryonic development, the lungs begin to develop as an outpouching of the foregut, a tube which goes on to form the upper part of the digestive system. When the lungs are formed the fetus is held in the fluid-filled amniotic sac and so they do not function to breathe.

Blood is also diverted from the lungs through the ductus arteriosus. At birth however, air begins to pass through the lungs, and the diversionary duct closes, so that the lungs can begin to respire. The lungs only fully develop in early childhood. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis is a type of chronic Lung Disease characterized by a progressive and irreversible decline in lung function. Symptoms typically include gradual onset of shortness of breath and a dry cough.

Other changes may include feeling tired and nail clubbing.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis IPF is a type of lung disease that results in scarring fibrosis of the lungs for an unknown reason. Over time, the scarring gets worse and it becomes hard to take in a deep breath and the lungs cannot take in enough oxygen. Complications may include pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, pneumonia, or pulmonary embolism. The cause is unknown. Risk factors include a cigarette smoking , certain viral infections, and a family history of the condition. The underlying mechanism involves scarring of the lungs.

Diagnosis requires ruling out other potential causes and may be supported by a CT scan or lung biopsy. It is a type of interstitial lung disease ILD. People often benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation and supplemental oxygen. Certain medications like pirfenidone or nintedanib may slow the progression of the disease. Lung transplantation may also be an option. About 5 million people are affected globally. The disease newly occurs in about 12 per , people per year. Those in their 60s and 70s are most commonly affected. Males are affected more often than females. Average life expectancy following diagnosis is about four years.

Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine. Long-term issues include difficulty breathing and coughing up mucus as a result of frequent lung infections. Other signs and symptoms may include sinus infections, poor growth, fatty stool, clubbing of the fingers and toes, and infertility in most males. Different people may have different degrees of symptoms. Potential cystic fibrosis treatment uses 'molecular prosthetic' for missing lung protein. An approved drug normally used to treat fungal infections could also do the job of a protein channel that is missing or dysfunctional in the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis, operating as a prosthesis on the molecular scale, says new research.

One breath for every two foot strikes taking two steps one left, one right while breathing in and two steps while breathing out rhythm. Synchronizing the breath to running cadence will keep the organs from putting unnecessary pressure on the diaphragm, which can impede breathing and make running more uncomfortable than it needs to be. There is also the inhale-to-exhale ratio; full inhales and full exhales.

Running Websites for Runners - When starting to run, concentrate solely on form. Keep your hips, spine and neck aligned. Minimize up and down movement. Run in as straight a line as possible. Women Run Faster after taking newly developed supplement combo of minerals and other nutrients in forms of iron, copper and zinc along with two other nutrients — carnitine derived from an amino acid and phosphatidylserine made up of fatty acids and amino acids.

Sprinting is running over a short distance in a limited period of time. It is used in many sports that incorporate running, typically as a way of quickly reaching a target or goal, or avoiding or catching an opponent. Human Physiology dictates that a runner's near-top speed cannot be maintained for more than 30—35 seconds due to the depletion of phosphocreatine stores in muscles, and perhaps secondarily to excessive metabolic acidosis as a result of anaerobic glycolysis.

High Interval Training Foot Speed is the maximum speed at which a human can run. It is affected by many factors, varies greatly throughout the population, and is important in athletics and many sports, such as association football, rugby, American football, track and field, hockey, baseball and basketball. The record was Action Physics. Long Slow Distance is a form of aerobic endurance training in running and cycling. Physiological adaptations to LSD training include improved cardiovascular function, improved thermoregulatory function, improved mitochondrial energy production, increased oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle, and increased utilization of fat for fuel.

Ernst van Aaken, a German physician and coach, is generally recognized as the founder of the long slow distance method of endurance training. Long slow distance training is a form of continuous training performed at a constant pace of low to moderate intensity over an extended distance or duration. The moderate training intensity of LSD is effective in improving endurance and maximum oxygen uptake in individuals who are undertrained or moderately trained. Long slow distance training is thought not to be effective when used in isolation by well-trained athletes, who in order to achieve further improvements in metabolic conditioning require higher training intensities that are not sustainable at the work durations associated with LSD.

Slumping over is actually better for breathing. Bending over helps your diaphragm the major breathing muscle suck in more air. The bent over position also helps you use your abs to breathe out more forcefully, and may signal your nervous system to relax. It will also lower your heart rate more quickly than standing up with your hands behind your head.

Heavy breathing during running is more of a function of getting the carbon dioxide out. Secondly, delivery of both Oxygen to the muscles and CO2 and other by products to the lungs is the issue. When you stop running, blood tends to pool in the legs because you no longer have that leg pump to help pump the blood upwards, against gravity, back to the heart. When you stop, the body has the problem of pumping blood against gravity. The reason you bend over or even lie down after hard exercise is that the body is trying make it where the heart is essentially on the same plane as the rest of the body, so that pumping the blood is easier, and not against gravity.

Why do my Lungs Burn during Strenuous Exercise? During high-intensity aerobic activities such as running, cycling, or swimming, you increase the need for oxygen, ventilation and both the rate and the depth of breathing. As a result many people experience a burning sensation in their lungs and windpipe. A variety of factors affect the degree to which people experience this sensation. If you are new to exercising and are not yet accustomed to the rigors of intense activity, you breathe through your mouth and not just your nose, so the air rushing toward your lungs tends to dry the mucus membranes in your mouth and bronchial passages, resulting in irritation and a burning sensation.

This condition gets worse in cold weather. And if you are suffering from an acute condition that originates in or affects the lungs or airways, such as bronchitis , emphysema , pneumonia , asthma or strep throat , then any burning sensation you experience when breathing during exercise is apt to be exacerbated. And if you are a smoker or exercise in an environment heavy in lung irritants , such as an industrial zone, consider removing the source of the physiological distress by moving indoors or quitting smoking. If you have no health issues, with improved conditioning, you will adapt to this and feel less irritation, and the burning sensation will be minimal.

Dry Mouth. Nose Breathing has its own benefits, including increased CO2 saturation in the blood, which creates a more calming effect. Breathing in through the nose can also help warm the air entering the lungs. The breath should come from the diaphragm the most efficient breathing muscle —not the chest.

Breathing deeper, calmer, and more efficiently can also give athletes a psychological edge. Mouth Breathing is breathing through the mouth rather than the nose. Healthy humans may breathe through their nose, their mouth, or both. During rest, breathing through the nose is common for most individuals. Breathing through both nose and mouth during exercise is also normal, a behavioral adaptation to increase air intake and hence supply more oxygen to the muscles.

Keep Your Brain Fit: 101 Ways to Tone Your Mind

Mouth breathing may be called abnormal when an individual breathes through the mouth even during rest. Some sources use the term "mouth breathing habit" but this incorrectly implies that the individual is fully capable of normal nasal breathing, and is breathing through their mouth out of preference. Chronic mouth breathing in children may have implications on dental and facial growth.

It also may cause gingivitis inflamed gums and halitosis bad breath , especially upon waking if mouth breathing occurs during sleeping. They are renowned for their long-distance running ability. These people developed a tradition of long-distance running up to miles km in one session, over a period of two days through their homeland of rough canyon country, for inter-village communication, transportation, and hunting.

Running Upright: The minuscule movements that keep us from falling. The human body is constantly calibrating, making microscopic adjustments and corrections to keep us from falling. Exercise Breathing Tips Bench Press Breathing Tip: Exhale slowly and continuously while pressing the bar, then inhale at the top of the lift or on the return.

Some say you should always exhale on exertion. For example, when you are pushing a bench press off your chest, you exhale on the push and inhale as you bring it slowly to your chest. Pull-Up Breathing Tip: You exhale on the pulling up motion and inhale on the way down.

Shallow breathing can result in or be symptomatic of rapid breathing and hypoventilation. Most people who breathe shallowly do it throughout the day and are almost always unaware of the condition. In upper lobar breathing , clavicular breathing, or clavicle breathing air is drawn predominantly into the chest by the raising of the shoulders and collarbone clavicles , and simultaneous contracting of the abdomen during inhalation.

Maximum amount of air can be drawn this way only for short periods of time, since it requires a lot of effort. When used for prolonged time, this is the most superficial mode of shallow breathing. Hypoventilation occurs when ventilation is inadequate hypo meaning "below" to perform needed gas exchange. By definition it causes an increased concentration of carbon dioxide hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis.

Hypoventilation is not synonymous with respiratory arrest, in which breathing ceases entirely and death occurs within minutes due to hypoxia and leads rapidly into complete anoxia , although both are medical emergencies. Hypoventilation can be considered a precursor to hypoxia and its lethality is attributed to hypoxia with carbon dioxide toxicity.

Aerobic Organism is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment. Aerobic Exercising. Anaerobic Organism is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth. Some anaerobes react negatively or even die if oxygen is present. VO2 Max is the maximum rate of oxygen consumption measured during incremental exercise exercise of increasing intensity. The name is derived from V - volume, O2 - Oxygen , max - maximum. Maximal oxygen consumption reflects the cardiorespiratory fitness of an individual and is an important determinant of their endurance capacity during prolonged exercise.

Accurately measuring VO2 max involves a physical effort sufficient in duration and intensity to fully tax the aerobic energy system. In general clinical and athletic testing , this usually involves a graded exercise test either on a treadmill or on a cycle ergometer in which exercise intensity is progressively increased while measuring: ventilation and oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration of the inhaled and exhaled air.

VO2 max is reached when oxygen consumption remains at a steady state despite an increase in workload. This is the minimum speed for which the organism's maximal oxygen uptake is reached after a few minutes of exercise at this intensity ; at higher paces, additional power is entirely delivered by anaerobic processes. At this pace, blood lactate in the muscles reaches levels around mM. Mitochondrial Biogenesis is the process by which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass and copy number to increase the production of ATP as a response to greater energy expenditure.

It was first described by John Holloszy in the s, when it was discovered that physical endurance training induced higher mitochondrial content levels, leading to greater glucose uptake by muscles. Mitochondrial biogenesis is activated by numerous different signals during times of cellular stress or in response to environmental stimuli, such as aerobic exercise. Wingate Test is an anaerobic exercise test, most often performed on a stationary bicycle , that measures peak anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity.

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The test, which can also be performed on an arm crank ergometer, consists of a set time pedaling at maximum speed against a given resistance. Lungs - Hyperbaric Medicine. Anaerobic Exercise Tests are divided into tests measuring anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity. Anaerobic power tests include force-velocity tests, vertical jump tests, staircase tests, and cycle ergometer tests.

The values of maximal anaerobic power obtained with these different protocols are different but generally well correlated. Differences between tests include factors such as whether average power or instantaneous power is measured, active muscle mass is the same in all the protocols, the legs act simultaneously or successively, maximal power is measured at the very beginning of exercise or after several seconds, inertia of the devices and body segments are taken into account. Force-velocity tests have the advantage of enabling the estimation of the force and velocity components of power, which is not possible with tests such as a staircase test, a vertical jump, the Wingate test and other long-duration cycle ergometer protocols.

Maximal anaerobic capacity tests are subdivided into maximal oxygen debt test, ergometric tests all-out tests and constant load tests , measurement of oxygen deficit during a constant load test and measurement of peak blood lactate. The measurement of the maximal oxygen debt is not valid and reliable enough to be used as an anaerobic capacity test. The aerobic metabolism involvement during anaerobic capacity tests, and the ignorance of the mechanical efficiency, limit the validity of the ergometric tests which are only based on the measurement of work. The amount of work performed during the Wingate test depends probably on glycolytic and aerobic power as well as anaerobic capacity.

The fatigue index power decrease of the all-out tests is not reliable and depends probably on aerobic power as well as the fast- twich fibre percentage. Reliability of the constant load tests has seldom been studied and has been found to be rather low. In theory, the measure of the oxygen deficit during a constant load test is more valid than the other tests but its reliability is unknown. The validity and reliability of postexercise blood lactate as a test of maximal anaerobic capacity are probably not better than that of the current erogmetric tests.

The choice of an anaerobic test depends on the aims and subjects of a study and its practicability within a testing session. Anaerobic Exercise is a physical exercise intense enough to cause Lactate to form. It is used by athletes in non-endurance sports to promote strength, speed and power and by body builders to build muscle mass.

Muscle energy systems trained using anaerobic exercise develop differently compared to aerobic exercise, leading to greater performance in short duration , high intensity activities, which last from mere seconds to up to about 2 minutes. Any activity lasting longer than about two minutes has a large aerobic metabolic component. Anaerobic metabolism is a natural part of whole-body metabolic energy expenditure. Fast twitch muscle as compared to slow twitch muscle operates using anaerobic metabolic systems, such that any recruitment of fast twich muscle fibers leads to increased anaerobic energy expenditure.

Intense exercise lasting upwards of about four minutes e. Anaerobic energy expenditure is difficult to accurately quantify, although several reasonable methods to estimate the anaerobic component to exercise are available. Aerobic Organism. Anaerobic Respiration is respiration using electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen O2. Although oxygen is not used as the final electron acceptor, the process still uses a respiratory electron transport chain called physolmere; it is respiration without oxygen. In aerobic organisms undergoing respiration, electrons are shuttled to an electron transport chain, and the final electron acceptor is oxygen.

Molecular oxygen is a highly oxidizing agent and, therefore, is an excellent electron acceptor. These terminal electron acceptors have smaller reduction potentials than O2, meaning that less energy is released per oxidized molecule. Therefore, generally speaking, anaerobic respiration is less efficient than aerobic. High-Intensity Interval Training is a form of interval training, a cardiovascular exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less intense recovery periods. HIIT is the concept where one performs a short burst of high-intensity or max-intensity exercise followed by a brief low-intensity activity, repeatedly, until too exhausted to continue.

Though there is no universal HIIT session duration, these intense workouts typically last under 30 minutes, with times varying based on a participant's current fitness level. Interval training may shed more pounds than continuous moderate intensity workout. And sprint interval training may be most effective for weight loss, the analysis indicates. High Intensity Interval Training alternates between high-intensity and low-intensity exercise.

For example, sprinting for seconds, then walking for seconds is high intensity interval training. HIIT can be used both anaerobically in the gym with weights and aerobically with cardio. High Intensity Training is a form of strength training that focuses on performing quality weight training repetitions to the point of momentary muscular failure. The training takes into account the number of repetitions, the amount of weight, and the amount of time the muscle is exposed to tension in order to maximize the amount of muscle fiber recruitment.

Threshold Training is a physical exercise intense enough to cause lactate to form. Muscle energy systems trained using anaerobic exercise develop differently compared to aerobic exercise , leading to greater performance in short duration, high intensity activities, which last from mere seconds to up to about 2 minutes.

Plyometrics are exercises in which muscles exert maximum force in short intervals of time, with the goal of increasing power speed-strength. This training focuses on learning to move from a muscle extension to a contraction in a rapid or "explosive" manner, such as in specialized repeated jumping.

Plyometrics are primarily used by athletes, especially martial artists, sprinters and high jumpers, to improve performance, and are used in the fitness field to a much lesser degree. Vigorous Exercise , Fasting, Hormones improve elimination of toxic, misfolded, unnecessary proteins in mouse and human cells. When a nerve or muscle cell is at "rest", its membrane potential is called the resting membrane potential. In a typical neuron, this is about —70 millivolts mV. The minus sign indicates that the inside of the cell is negative with respect to the surrounding extracellular fluid.

CO2 - Atmosphere Knowledge. It may react negatively or even die if free oxygen is present. In contrast, an aerobic organism aerobe is an organism that requires an oxygenated environment. Reactive Oxygen Species are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen. Examples include peroxides, superoxide, hydroxyl radical, and singlet oxygen. A type of unstable molecule that contains oxygen and that easily reacts with other molecules in a cell. Reactive oxygen species are free radicals. Also called oxygen radical. Oxidative Stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.

Antioxidant is a molecule that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules. Radical is an atom , molecule, or ion that has unpaired valence electrons. Hypoxemia is an abnormally low level of oxygen in the blood. More specifically, it is oxygen deficiency in arterial blood. Hypoxemia has many causes, often respiratory disorders, and can cause tissue hypoxia as the blood is not supplying enough oxygen to the body. Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.

Hypoxia may be classified as either generalized, affecting the whole body, or local, affecting a region of the body. Although hypoxia is often a pathological condition, variations in arterial oxygen concentrations can be part of the normal physiology, for example, during hypoventilation training or strenuous physical exercise. Hypoxia differs from hypoxemia and anoxemia in that hypoxia refers to a state in which oxygen supply is insufficient, whereas hypoxemia and anoxemia refer specifically to states that have low or zero arterial oxygen supply.

Hypoxia in which there is complete deprivation of oxygen supply is referred to as anoxia. Generalized hypoxia occurs in healthy people when they ascend to high altitude, where it causes altitude sickness leading to potentially fatal complications: high altitude pulmonary edema HAPE and high altitude cerebral edema HACE. Hypoxia also occurs in healthy individuals when breathing mixtures of gases with a low oxygen content, e. Mild, non-damaging intermittent hypoxia is used intentionally during altitude training to develop an athletic performance adaptation at both the systemic and cellular level.

Hypoxia is a common complication of preterm birth in newborn infants. Because the lungs develop late in pregnancy, premature infants frequently possess underdeveloped lungs. To improve lung function, doctors frequently place infants at risk of hypoxia inside incubators also known as humidicribs that provide continuous positive airway pressure. Almost all the oxygen in the blood is bound to Hemoglobin , so interfering with this carrier molecule limits oxygen delivery to the periphery. Hemoglobin increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood by about fold, with the ability of hemoglobin to carry oxygen influenced by the partial pressure of oxygen in the environment, a relationship described in the oxygen—hemoglobin dissociation curve.

When the ability of hemoglobin to carry oxygen is interfered with, a hypoxic state can result. Ozone is a colorless unstable toxic gas with a pungent odor and powerful oxidizing properties , formed from oxygen by electrical discharges or ultraviolet light. It differs from normal oxygen O2 in having three atoms in its molecule O3. Trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula O3. It is a pale blue gas with a distinctively pungent smell. It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic allotrope O2, breaking down in the lower atmosphere to O2 dioxygen.

Ozone is formed from dioxygen by the action of ultraviolet light UV and electrical discharges within the Earth's atmosphere. It is present in very low concentrations throughout the latter, with its highest concentration high in the ozone layer of the stratosphere, which absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet UV radiation. Ozone's odour is reminiscent of chlorine, and detectable by many people at concentrations of as little as 0. Ozone's O3 structure was determined in The molecule was later proven to have a bent structure and to be diamagnetic.

In standard conditions, ozone is a pale blue gas that condenses at progressively cryogenic temperatures to a dark blue liquid and finally a violet-black solid. Ozone's instability with regard to more common dioxygen is such that both concentrated gas and liquid ozone may decompose explosively at elevated temperatures or fast warming to the boiling point. Ozone is a powerful oxidant far more so than dioxygen and has many industrial and consumer applications related to oxidation.

This same high oxidising potential, however, causes ozone to damage mucous and respiratory tissues in animals, and also tissues in plants, above concentrations of about 0. While this makes ozone a potent respiratory hazard and pollutant near ground level, a higher concentration in the ozone layer from two to eight ppm is beneficial, preventing damaging UV light from reaching the Earth's surface.

Oxygen Therapy is the use of oxygen as a medical treatment. This can include for low blood oxygen, carbon monoxide toxicity , cluster headaches, and to maintain enough oxygen while inhaled anesthetics are given. Long-term oxygen is often useful in people with chronically low oxygen such as from severe COPD or cystic fibrosis. Oxygen can be given in a number of ways including nasal cannula , face mask , and inside a hyperbaric chamber.

Oxygen is required for normal cell metabolism. Excessively high concentrations can cause oxygen toxicity such as lung damage or result in respiratory failure in those who are predisposed. Higher oxygen concentrations also increase the risk of fires , particularly while smoking, and without humidification can also dry out the nose. The target oxygen saturation recommended depends on the condition being treated. The use of oxygen in medicine became common around It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.

Home oxygen can be provided either by oxygen tanks or an oxygen concentrator. Oxygen is believed to be the most common treatment given in hospitals in the developed world. Orthostatic Hypotension or head rush, occurs when a person's blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up from a lying or sitting position. Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability. The sensation of lightheadedness can be short-lived, prolonged, or, rarely, recurring.

In addition to dizziness, the individual may feel as though his or her head is weightless. The individual may also feel as though the room is what causes the "spinning" or moving vertigo associated with lightheadedness. Most causes of lightheadedness are not serious and either cure themselves quickly or are easily treated. Keeping a sense of balance requires the brain to process a variety of information received from the eyes, the nervous system , and the inner ears.

If the brain is unable to process these signals, such as when the messages are contradictory, or if the sensory systems are improperly functioning, an individual may experience lightheadedness or dizziness. Faint is a sudden loss of consciousness. Pass out from weakness , physical or emotional distress due to a loss of blood supply to the brain. Blackout memory loss. Syncope or fainting , is defined as a short loss of consciousness and muscle strength , characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.

It is due to a decrease in blood flow to the entire brain usually from low blood pressure. There are sometimes symptoms before the loss of consciousness such as lightheadedness, sweating, pale skin, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, or feeling warm. Syncope may also be associated with a short episode of muscle twitching. When consciousness and muscle strength are not completely lost, it is called presyncope. It is recommended that presyncope be treated the same as syncope. Causes range from non-serious to potentially fatal. There are three broad categories of causes: heart or blood vessel related, reflex also known as neurally mediated, and orthostatic hypotension.

Heart related causes may include an abnormal heart rhythm , problems with the heart valves or heart muscle and blockages of blood vessels from a pulmonary embolism or aortic dissection among others. Neurally mediated syncope occurs when blood vessels expand and heart rate decreases inappropriately. This may occur from either a triggering event such as exposure to blood, pain, strong feelings or a specific activity such as urination, vomiting, or coughing.

This type of syncope may also occur when an area in the neck known as the carotid sinus is pressed. The third type of syncope is due to a drop in blood pressure from standing up.

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This is often due to medications that a person is taking but may also be related to dehydration , significant bleeding or infection. Vasovagal Response is a malaise mediated by the vagus nerve. When it leads to fainting. Vertigo is the sensation of spinning or having one's surroundings spin about them. Balance Disorder is a disturbance that causes an individual to feel unsteady, for example when standing or walking. It may be accompanied by feelings of giddiness, or wooziness, or having a sensation of movement, spinning, or floating. Balance is the result of several body systems working together: the visual system eyes , vestibular system ears and proprioception the body's sense of where it is in space.

Degeneration or loss of function in any of these systems can lead to balance deficits. Alcohol thins the blood which distorts the shape of the inner ear creating a false signal. The swollen ear parts push on the tiny sensory hairs, deceiving the brain into producing the sense of motion , or spinning. When in the dark the spinning sense is enhanced, since you can no longer rely upon visual cues to counteract the false sense of motion. Vestibular System is the sensory system that provides the leading contribution about the sense of balance and spatial orientation for the purpose of coordinating movement with balance , in your ear is a set of three fluid-filled canals which work like a three-directional spirit level.

So your head knows which direction your head is moving. Endolymph is the fluid contained in the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear. It is also called Scarpa's fluid, after Antonio Scarpa Ampullary Cupula is a structure in the vestibular system, providing the sense of spatial orientation Cochlea Dizzy - Tommy Roe youtube Vestibulo-ocular Reflex is a reflex eye movement that elicits eye movement by stimulating the vestibular system.

This reflex functions to stabilize images on the retinas in yoked vision during head movement by producing eye movements in the direction opposite to head movement, thus preserving the image on the center of the visual field s. For example, when the head moves to the right, the eyes move to the left, and vice versa. Since slight head movement is present all the time, the VOR is very important for stabilizing vision: patients whose VOR is impaired find it difficult to read using print, because they cannot stabilize the eyes during small head tremors, and also because damage to the VOR can cause vestibular nystagmus.

Image Stabilization are techniques that reduce blurring associated with the motion of a camera or other imaging device during exposure. Fixation Reflex concerned with attracting the eye on a peripheral object. For example, when a light shines in the periphery, the eyes shift gaze on it. It is controlled by the occipital lobe of the cerebral cortex. The muscles wrapped around the Z-axis of your eyes are there to keep everything level — up to a point. This reduces the amount of processing power your brain needs to decode the world around you — provided that your head is within about 15 degrees of vertical.

Once your head tilts past that point, your eyes stop trying to keep things horizontal, and gives up, untwisting themselves. Spatial Intelligence Body Kinesthetic Intelligence Weights A repetition is a single exercise, one squat is s rep, and a set is a series of reps or repetitions, 10 squats is one set Weight Training is a common type of strength training for developing the strength and size of skeletal muscles. It utilizes the force of gravity in the form of weighted bars, dumbbells or weight stacks in order to oppose the force generated by muscle through concentric or eccentric contraction.

Weight training uses a variety of specialized equipment to target specific muscle groups and types of movement. Sports where strength training is central are bodybuilding, weightlifting, powerlifting, and strongman, highland games, shot put, discus throw, and javelin throw. Many other sports use strength training as part of their training regimen, notably; mixed martial arts, American football, wrestling, rugby football, track and field, rowing, lacrosse, basketball, baseball, and hockey. Strength training for other sports and physical activities is becoming increasingly popular.

Using heavier weights instead of light weights can you save time when exercising. The best weight to use is a weight that you can only lift 5 to 10 times or no more than 10 reps. Lifting slowly may help decrease Injuries. Proper Form, Good Technique and Breathing properly is essential for every workout. Weight Training Exercises List PDF Resistance Training is a type of physical exercise specializing in the use of resistance to induce muscular contraction which builds the strength, anaerobic endurance , and size of skeletal muscles.

Human hormone and protein linked to bone mass are impacted by 12 months of targeted exercise. Hans und Franz - Pump you up! Military Press is lifting weights over your head using your arms, targets the deltoid muscles in the shoulders as well as the triceps. Additionally, it works the core and legs, which the lifter uses to help stabilize the weight. Pull-ups is using your hands to hang from a bar and then pull your self up using your arms where your chin comes close to the top of a bar. Pull Ups and Lat Pull Downs both effectively activated the lats. Lat Pull Downs is using a weight machine that you use to pull down a bar from the sitting position using your arms, designed to develop the latissimus dorsi muscle.

It performs the functions of downward rotation and depression of the scapulae combined with adduction and extension of the shoulder joint. Sit-ups begins with lying with the back flat on the floor with legs bent, and then lift the upper body until you come close to touching your knees. Abdominal Exercise are those that affect the abdominal muscles colloquially known as the stomach muscles or "abs". Abdominal Bracing Exercise. Pelvis is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs.

Yoga Squats starts in the standing position and then bending your knees into a squatting position and the back up again. Squats are a full body exercise that trains primarily the muscles of the thighs, hips and buttocks, quadriceps femoris muscle vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius and rectus femoris , hamstrings, as well as strengthening the bones, ligaments and insertion of the tendons throughout the lower body. Squats are considered a vital exercise for increasing the strength and size of the legs as well as developing core strength.

Squats are typically used to hone back, thigh, and hip stability. Isometrically, the lower back, the upper back, the abdominals, the trunk muscles, the costal muscles, and the shoulders and arms are all essential to the exercise and thus are trained when squatting with the proper form. The squat is one of the three lifts in the strength sport of powerlifting, together with deadlifts and bench press. It is also considered a staple in many popular recreational exercise programs. Leg Press is a weight machine training exercise in which the individual pushes a weight or resistance away from them using their legs, while in the sitting position.

Deadlifts is using a loaded barbell or bar that is lifted off the ground to the level of the hips, then lowered to the ground. Burpee or Squat Thrust is a full body exercise used in strength training and as an aerobic exercise. Begins in a standing position. Move into a squat position with your hands on the ground. Calf Raises are a method of exercising the gastrocnemius , tibialis posterior and soleus muscles of the lower leg. The movement performed is plantar flexion, a. Every rep. Every workout.

Every time. These range from simple spring-like devices to computerized electromechanical rides to recirculating-stream swimming pools. Most exercise machines incorporate an Ergometer. An ergometer is an apparatus for measuring the work a person exerts while exercising as used in training or cardiac stress tests or other medical tests.

Super Slow involves the combination of very slow speeds of lifting and lowering the weight, along with the general principles of the High intensity training approach. Isometrics are done in static positions, rather than being dynamic through a range of motion. Plank as an exercise is an isometric core strength exercise that involves maintaining a position similar to a push-up for the maximum possible time.

Dynamic Tension is a self-resistance exercise method which pits muscle against muscle. The practitioner tenses the muscles of a given body part and then moves the body part against the tension as if a heavy weight were being lifted. Dynamic Tension exercises are not merely isometrics, since they call for movement.

Instead, the method comprises a combination of exercises in three disciplines: isotonic, isokinetic, and some exercises in the isometric discipline. Gyrotonic Bodyweight Exercise are strength training exercises that do not require free weights or machines as the individual's own weight provides resistance against gravity. It is recognized that bodyweight exercises can enhance a range of bio-motor abilities including strength , power, endurance , speed, flexibility , coordination and balance.

This type of strength training has grown in popularity for both recreational and professional athletes, with a range of sports disciplines using bodyweight resistance training as part of their fitness programs. Bodyweight training utilizes simple abilities such as pushing, pulling, squatting, bending, twisting and balancing.

Movements such as the push-up, the pull-up, and the sit-up are some of the most common bodyweight exercises. Whole Body Vibration is when a vibration of a particular frequency is transferred to the human body. Sometimes standing or lying on a machine with a vibrating platform. When the machine vibrates, it transmits energy to the body, and muscles contract and relax multiple times during each second.

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This is done to create a purely eccentric muscle reaction and enable anaerobic activity burning energy without oxygen — the opposite of cardio. Moving your body in different directions and planes of motion helps reduce strain on the muscles and joints that come from doing the same motions over and over. Variety in your workouts makes you more interested in exercise. Cross Fit incorporates elements from high-intensity interval training, Olympic weightlifting, plyometrics, powerlifting, gymnastics, girevoy sport, calisthenics, strongman, and other exercises. Interval Training alternates between two activities, typically requiring different rates of speed, degrees of effort, etc.

A type of physical training that involves a series of low- to high-intensity exercise workouts interspersed with rest or relief periods. The high-intensity periods are typically at or close to anaerobic exercise, while the recovery periods involve activity of lower intensity. My Workout Routine - I mix yoga , weight lifting, aerobics and a few other exercises into one workout, usually with some music.

Around 40 mins exercising at home. First I warm up with some gentle body twists and bending 10 Mins. Then the ground work, some sit-ups, push ups, yoga , planking and a few other exercises. Then Aerobics. I do one tabata set, then a 20 second rest, then 10 military presses with dumbbells, then a 20 second rest, then another tabata exercise set, then 10 dumbbell curls, and so on and so on. Then on other days I either walk, hike or ride my bicycle. And of course eat healthy. Tabata Style 20 Min. Cardio youtube Strength Exercise as Vital as Aerobic.

Push ups and sit ups could add years to your life. Plank - Isometric Compound Exercises are multi-joint movements that work several muscles or muscle groups at one time. A great example of a compound exercise is the squat exercise, which engages many muscles in the lower body and core, including the quadriceps, the hamstrings, the calves, the glutes, the lower back and the core.

Stretching is a form of physical exercise in which a specific muscle or tendon or muscle group is deliberately flexed or stretched in order to improve the muscle's felt elasticity and achieve comfortable muscle tone. The result is a feeling of increased muscle control, flexibility, and range of motion. Stretching is also used therapeutically to alleviate cramps.

Calisthenics are exercises consisting of a variety of gross motor movements ; often rhythmical and generally without equipment or apparatus. Calisthenics Exercises - Calisthenics Workout General Fitness Training works towards broad goals of overall health and well-being, rather than narrow goals of sport competition, larger muscles or concerns over appearance.

A regular moderate workout regimen and healthy diet can improve general appearance markers of good health such as muscle tone, healthy skin, hair and nails, while preventing age or lifestyle-related reductions in health and the series of heart and organ failures that accompany inactivity and poor diet.

Diet itself helps to increase calorie burning by boosting metabolism, a process further enhanced while gaining more lean muscle.