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The admin involved in the lengthy discussion, however, refused to issue a block, or even a warning. This was despite the intervention of various editors who appealed — even pleaded — for a block to be placed on the offending user. More often, the warning simply makes them more upset. Warnings are only effective with unregistered users and brand new users. However, this sort of thing takes a lot of effort, and usually drags out over weeks and months.

More like two of them, followed by an ArbCom case.

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Simply voicing opinions on this page is not likely to lead anywhere. Those might be worth writing down somewhere And this is, pragmatically, not good for the encyclopedia.

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The reason to bring up this example is that, by way of comparison, none of this — aside from the initial offense — is likely to have transpired in the same way on Spanish-language Wikipedia. The user had been involved in previous soccer-related debates, and in the past had had to apologize for implying that certain fellow editors exhibited a pro-Madrid bias. Two admins weighed in on the issue. One particular comment was judged by both admins as a blockable offense, perhaps because it questioned the impartiality of admins as a whole. Within six hours of the original complaint, the editor currently with 2, edits was blocked for two weeks for this offense.

Of course, these two examples might just be a case of selective use of evidence. Indeed, a user with more than 27, edits was permanently banned recently for Wikiquette violations. Moreover, the process would not have dragged out over weeks or months, or even days for that matter. As mentioned, there is no ArbCom in the Spanish-language community. The different approach to blocking and banning in Spanish-language Wikipedia seems to produce a greater level of satisfaction among aggrieved users seeking quick punitive measures for what they see as gross breaches of civility. However, as we shall see, it also generates considerable controversy when a highly-experienced user finds him or herself under the guillotine.

In what follows we look at these issues in more detail. Quantitative measures are one indicator of the differences between the two communities. The cases are also more abbreviated, as far as discussion goes, in Spanish-language Wikipedia: these were words on average, whereas the English-language discussions are nearly four times as long. As these numbers would indicate, the approach of admins is different in both communities, as are the reactions of the editor populations.

These responses are frustrating to some editors, who seek a clear enforcement of the civility policy via blocks or bans. Can an admin please look into that? It's really sad, because WP culture would greatly benefit from a zero-tolerance policy regarding personal attacks, such as these. I hope this time will be different. On the Spanish-language site admins handle these matters differently. Aggrieved editors can and do directly request a block as part of their complaint. These sorts of admin decisions are expected to be authoritative among the editor community.

The point, in short, is to render a decision, not enter into a lengthy discussion. In their responses to these, admins on Spanish-language Wikipedia are more stern than touchy-feely. Blocks at times are accompanied by a clear ultimatum to the offending user, indicating that a permanent ban will follow next time. In cases where only a warning is issued it can also be blunt:.

Do it on your talk pages, and when someone crosses the line of WP:E [Wikiquette] they will be blocked. The three editors subject to this warning, it should be noted, were not newbies: as of this moment, they have This is another side of the Wikiquette issue in the Spanish-language community: the blocking and banning of experienced editors. One way to look at this question quantitatively is to examine Wikiquette violations relative to other sorts of bans and blocks. To this end a sample of 5, of the most recent user-account blocks were examined on both the English and Spanish site.

What is more notable is the difference with the English site, where only 0. Also of interest is who is banned. Their edits are few, and the profile of their contributions shows a clear focus on talk pages rather than articles. However, not all those banned fit this case. One way to measure this is to determine who might be or aspire to be a more legitimate editor; to this end, a cutoff of at least edits to the site prior to the Wikiquette ban was used.

Both sites appear to permanently ban one such user roughly every two-and-a-half weeks. But the numbers, as always, only tell part of the story. The point is the impact of specific cases on the community. After all, the Spanish-language community of very-active editors is nearly 10 times smaller than the English-language one: as mentioned, in May it consisted of users. As such, the bans of more experienced users are far less likely to go unnoticed in the editor community. Indeed, some strongly believe that personal factors can also come into play.

These assertions could not be confirmed, but such perceptions undoubtedly affect editor behavior and relationships within the community. We will return to this question of user-admin conflicts further below. Some of the responses to this proposal the discussion was lengthy are illustrative of one set of attitudes within the community:. Sounds to me like elevating trolling to the level of a bureaucratic process. Explaining the differences around blocks and Wikiquette violations between the two editor communities is not entirely straightforward.

At minimum it would require a closer look at a good number of specific cases. In addition, it would be useful to extend the analysis above to cases of edit wars, for example. Clearly some of this is related to the relatively unconstrained powers of admins, and the attitudes among editors that support this lack of constraints. As mentioned, some editors undoubtedly see an advantage to this, in terms of the ability of admins to deal quickly and decisively with uncivil editors and trolls, among other problems.

A more mundane explanation for the differences would be a greater concern with decorum and civility in Spanish-speaking particularly Latin American cultures, compared to those of English speakers; while this can becomes something of a stereotype held by Latin Americans in particular it has a grain of truth to it. Another question is whether blocks due to Wikiquette violations — particularly of experienced users — appear to be tied, at least in some cases, to factionalization within the community; this is an issue we will take up a bit later.

It might be useful to start this section with a broader perspective. This involves making a distinction between different ways of exercising power. In one model, power is held by an office that is, a position , and is exercised and limited according to stated rules, formal procedures, and oversight. An illustration of this might be the role of a sports referee, for example.

In an alternate model, power is held by individual people, is exercised according to the judgment and virtues of the individual, and is limited by direct negotiation. An example of this might be a parent. In most environments you find a mixture of both models, and Wikipedia is no exception to this. They have also resisted measures that limit the individual judgment and discretion exercised by admins.

Others dissent from this perspective: there are advocates of clearer procedures around conflict resolution and the placing of constraints and oversight on admin powers. To explore this, we can start with the views of editors on measures taken to formalize conflict resolution, such as the now-defunct Conflict Resolution Committee WP:CRC.

It never resolved anything; if anything, it augmented the conflicts. It was slow and inefficient, and it ended up in a functional stoppage two-thirds of the time. Then they would produce resolutions in one fell swoop that were poorly considered and a few scandalously contravening Wikipedia policies. It is clear, however, that it was not merely an experiment in democracy. The CRC had its origins, in part, in a desire to limit and provide oversight to the power of admins.

Admins and their supporters of course fired back against these views. Thus according to one admin:. Does it make sense to have a body within Wikipedia itself that has as its purpose officially placing a newbie with an admin face-to-face? There are thus editors who feel that more formal procedures for conflict resolution simply creates more opportunities for wikilawyering WP:Wikilawyering , and needless disputes. It is moreover a faulty mechanism to address a problem that can be best resolved by allowing the admins to do their job, and use their powers for more direct and immediate resolution of conflicts.

Others, however, believe that wikilawyering is a lesser evil to leaving conflict-related matters entirely in the hands of admins. In short, despite the criticisms or even irrelevance of the CRC, and the fact that it was voted to be abolished, editors are still of two minds as to how to address conflicts in Wikipedia. The most sensitive issue still appears to be the power to block users held by admins, a point of contention that continued after the suspension of the CRC.

But a consensus has never been possible, so that each admin does what they want, with all the drama that goes along with it. The response by critics of the proposal was pointed. There is also some important context to this proposal: the user making it had a contentious history. Nonetheless, he undoubtedly began to frustrate a few more experienced users and admins.

His response was to say that. Hierarchies that go against common sense, consensus and finally the whole spirit of communion and overcoming of differences which this Free Enyclopedia project points to. Discussions with this editor often became very pointed. For example, one admin with more two years tenure , when debating this editor, would repeatedly reference his list of previous blocks when making his own arguments. Was this user merely a tendentious and disruptive editor, who deserved the firm hand that admins often employ?

Or did he anger an influential admin, one who might have himself crossed the line as far as civility? Nonetheless, this did not prevent an attempted permanent ban. Whatever the source of the argument, there is clearly a great deal of impatience among some editors and admins with such proposals. Meanwhile, there continues to be unease, contentiousness, frustration, and even some soul-searching about blocking and banning. An editor troubled by the whole affair captured one argument found among the users who objected to the harsh punishment. It seems to me that in Wikipedia in English … it is not exactly the collective of admins who makes this decision, but rather the whole community that makes the determination as to whether to ban the difficult user, in certain pages.

This ban, however, appears to have stood. The extent of the polarization among certain editors around the role of admins blew up recently, in a dramatic case of sabotage on Spanish-language Wikipedia. To build up the group, private emails were sent to editors who they believed would be sympathetic, to obtain their participation. At the same time, this was not the only external forum in play.

Significantly, the forum is also publicly accessible to users not formally registered with it that is, if one knows the URL, something relatively easy to obtain. As a result, everything posted there can be read by anyone, and many participants in the forum use the same usernames as on Wikipedia. On the forum the participants coordinated their arguments, and discussed whether it would be possible to obtain additional votes against.

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That at times we have to use its weapons and play dirty, […] but with some strategy please. One included nominating an article written by a rival the ally of an objectionable admin to be deleted WP:CDB , while the rival was blocked. This scheme apparently went more or less according to plan. University of Houston.

University of New Hampshire. Este plan divide el libro en dos partes casi iguales. During the late s, considerable critical attention was given to the Latin American novel of the dictator. The theoretical bases for this study are weak. Sandoval proceeds mostly by substantiating her impressions through citing other critics or the authors themselves.

She regularly draws parallels between the fictional characters and the real historical dictators on which they were partially based. She cites no theoretical or critical studies published after Before publication, this dissertation would have been improved by updating it. Nevertheless, this is an informative introduction for the novice reader of dictator novels. University of Colorado at Boulder. Paul B. Bento Santiago, as a lawyer, personifies the patriarchal insistence on fidelity, obedience, hierarchy and honor. Dixon takes the issue of paternity which lies at the center of the novel, and applies it to a metaliterary interpretation of the text and questions the traditional authority vested in the patriarchal hierarchy of author-reader to the matriarchal non-hierarchical text-reader.

University of Georgia. Michael Handelsman apparently sees this as an injustice. He has succeeded. Mankato State University Minnesota. Much of the study repeats arguments that have been made by others, but it is most helpful to have the more important commentaries on the language of Rayuela brought together under one cover. Moreover, Lichtblau always keeps in mind again, as many have failed to do that linguistic cleverness is not sufficient to make literary art -not that he argues that Rayuela is more clever than artful, for he correctly points out that the cleverness and the obscenities that have offended some readers are rarely gratuitous in this novel.

Any study that seeks to elucidate and enumerate stylistic devices runs certain risks -repetition, cataloguing, etc. As might be expected, one often wishes Lichtblau had done more. He does little, for example, to clarify the problems of perspective and narrative voice in Rayuela , limiting himself instead to repeating what others have said.

Overall, nonetheless, it is a most informative and useful study. A major virtue of the study is its matter-of-fact, clear approach to the heavily baroque and often obscure texts of Lezama, chiefly Paradiso. Lezama is seen as purposeful and clear-sighted in his pursuit of his literary project. Generous use is made of Rousseau plates to aid in the discussion. The book is generally quite readable, no small achievement considering the difficulty of its subject.

Those readers not specialists in Lezama should not be intimidated by its common-sense and patient approach, and Lezama specialists should find much fruitful and provocative insight in its pages. Subsequent translation is used for the benefit of those not reading Spanish. The book has good notes, bibliography and index. Overall, this study is a solid contribution to the literature on a fascinating and often poorly understood writer. University of North Dakota. A bibliography of main works by chronological order and secondary sources is provided at the conclusion of each entry.

The title page notes that the volume is edited by Julio A. The sketches of the individual authors and gentes are the work of slightly over seventy scholars. All entries are signed with the initials of their authors. Cuban writers without regard to their political affiliation and place of residence are discussed in an extremely unbiased way. This is quite the contrary of the 2-volume Diccionario de la literatura cubana where writers who have broken with the Castro regime are treated as non-persons and completely ignored. The biographical data are accurate. Novels and short stories are often summarized and critically assessed both by the author of the sketch and other critics.

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The sketches range from two to eight pages. The Selected bibliographies at the end of each sketch are quite valuable, though no criteria for inclusion seem to be mentioned. In view of the fact that this volume is intended for the English-speaking user more references to material in English might have been provided.

A list of contributors and their addresses follows an extensive index of authors and titles. The two compilers of the Luis A. They also note that he taught at SIU from to his death in He died in Carbondale, Illinois. Typographical errors would seem to be few. There exist there book-length bibliographies of Alejo Carpentier, only one is given. These are anthologies of his poems in English translation with very little of a critical nature. In only several cases is there a separate section of anthologies that contain an authors work.

More attention might have been paid to English translation of Cuban authors. The treatment here varies. All who have worked en this biographical, critical dictionary are to be commended. The sketches appear to be accurate, the critical portions sound and valuable. It should remain the outstanding reference work on 20th century Cuban literature and is the finest work of its kind either in Spanish or in English. Southern Illinois University-Carbondale. However, the interest of the book does not lie in its slightly forced premise, but rather in the varied comments and reflections of the interviewees en their crafts.

A very helpful introduction states clearly the purpose and main findings of the interviews and prepares the reader well for what is to follow. The centerpiece of the work is a three-part interview with Umberto Eco, by far the longest in the book, and the point of reference for other interviews and questions. With considerable good humor and wisdom, Eco discusses The Name of the Rose ; his literary influences, including Borges, Cervantes, Thomas Mann and James Joyce; his personal biography, and his fascination with labyrinths, libraries, and laughter. Eco articulates convincingly the notion frequently expressed throughout the volume that the end of art, broadly construed, is ethical.

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What makes a work interesting, says Eco, is that in the stories of others we find models of behavior for ourselves. These models do not necessarily have to do with good and evil, but rather they present a series of situations with which we identify and ask ourselves what to do.

Thus, to Eco, the ethical is communicated through human behavior. Several themes emerge from the various conversations. First, no one interviewed regards literature and criticism as antagonistic endeavors; on the contrary, as might have been expected, all subjects consider both as complementary creative activities. The intent of the critic is to develop a rational argument that will convince the reader of the correctness of that single voice. The fiction writer, on the other hand, speaks in a multitude of voices; further, the fiction writer seeks to create an entire world, not to impose a single truth.

Moreover, fiction, unlike criticism, depends on the participation and imagination of the reader, thus dispersing not only power but also responsibility. It is not surprising that the writers here represented assert that they feel more free when writing fiction than when writing criticism.

This conflict is accentuated as one becomes more well known. The interviews are of uneven interest, as one might expect, and they are burdened at times by nonessential information, such as whether the author writes in the morning or at night, or uses a typewriter or a computer. But on the whole, Las dos caras de la escritura is a very readable and useful contribution to literary discourse by those who should know best, the writers themselves. It is divided into five chapters followed by a superficial conclusion, an anthology of verse, and a select bibliography.

More could have been said about the expansion of poetic language and themes, desacralization, the use of the grotesque, and the bold evocation of socio-economic misery and ethical malaise. The poetic anthology would better complement the literary history if bio-bibliographic data about individual poems and authors had been included. The complete texts of the principal manifestoes need to be present also in an appendix. In Gente de pluma Romero departs from Colombian literary history in order to deal with a wider scope of Spanish American writers, via a central focus which is presented in the introduction and sustained throughout most of the other studies of the volume.

This double perspective supposedly characterizes the Baroque, which Romero, like most Latin American literary critics and historians, uses gratuitously as a blanket label for all Latin American writing. Although most of the fourteen essays do not deal with Colombian topics, at least five do and of these, three rank among the most outstanding of the entire volume. Illinois State University. The four are prominent voices of feminism in the twentieth century and defenders of the rights of women versus men. Clarice Lispector was born in the Ukraine but grew up in Brazil.

Lindstrom examines these stories penetratingly. Rosario Castellanos was a pioneer in feminist criticism. In Oficio de tinieblas In Darkness she depicts relations between Mexicans and Indians and the need for social reform. Her native Chiapas serves as the setting for many of her works. In the second novel she is concerned with women silencing themselves. Silvina Bufrich collaborated with Jorge Luis Borges. Her social criticism has an elitist basis. A characteristic of her works is denunciatory of the Argentine upper class. Daughters seek advantage of their mothers. The four authors examine gender roles and extend feminist principles to discussions in literature.

Their stories constitute an anthology of feminism and capture visions of female sexuality. Lindstrom in addition to her criticism of the works of the four authors provides bibliographies and notes relative to the four novelists. The bibliographies are exceedingly rich in sources: titles of books and journals.

Lindstrom provides a lengthy introduction. Her meticulous attention to detail is obvious in every part of her study beginning with the preface. Serge I. Remaining chapters cover important topics in Hispanoamerican dialectology ranging from phonological characteristics to historical influences Chapters Throughout, phonological data and underlying forms are described in terms of generative theory. Constant references to generative theory Chomsky provide a unique and coherent basis not usually present in dialect studies of Spanish.

Nevertheless, the descriptions of formulaic syntactic rules are meaningless to the non-specialist, and detract from an excellent treatment which, in fact, focuses primarily on phonology and lexicon. As the authors themselves state, a separate full-length volume is needed to cover the morphosyntax of Hispano-American Spanish. Understandably, the few pages devoted to this topic merely highlight important features. The effects of tabooisms, disfemisms and eufemisms are also included.

This information could be included in the form of occasional maps in Chapters , but such useful visual displays are not found in this book. Missing from this historical sketch is the fascinating interplay between English and Spanish in the American Southwest. A new paragraph should be added describing the presence of a variety of Spanish in New Mexico since As the oldest variety of Spanish still extant in the United States, New Mexico Spanish exemplifies the nature of contact between English and Spanish, a situation also reflected in bilingual communities of Puerto Rican and Cuban speakers located in the continental United States.

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This Spanish-English contact in the United States is probably the most important event in the current development and history of Hispano-American Spanish, but is overlooked in this book. Zamora and Guitart address serious misconceptions which prevail about Hispano-American Spanish: i. I recommend this book for courses covering general Hispanic linguistics, as well as Spanish phonology and dialectology. To do this it proposes to drill receptive skills rather than productive skills, and to emphasize language tasks rather than language structure.

Instead of a traditional dialogue, the text relies on the student audiocassettes to communicate a listening passage called an episodio , on which students must concentrate without the benefit of visual support, and which is followed by a battery of exercises to check comprehension. It is recommended that the listening be done as homework and that the checking exercises be conducted in class. The audiocassettes, then, are integral to the plan for the course rather than supplemental, and the student is warned on the back of the outside cover of the text to please be sure that the book comes packaged with the student cassettes.

Each chapter contains a wide variety of exercises with only several questions per exercise rather than the more traditional tack of fewer exercises with more questions in each exercise. The ingenuity of the three authors knows no bounds, and their exercises range from matching the sense e. One commentary discusses the Chibcha civilization of ancient Colombia and the story of their white-bearded god Bochica, which has parallels with the Biblical story of Noah and the Flood.

A substantial consolidated list appears at the very end of each chapter. These lists contain many synonyms and other difficult words e. By Chapter 2 students are asked to write their own brief autobiography, to interview another student and to use process of elimination in matching a set of definitions with a list of vocabulary words.

Although the authors proclaim their intent not to stress unduly grammatical structure, their treatment of grammar is neither half-hearted nor slow-paced. Ser and estar are introduced in Chapter 1, as are the months, the numbers up to one hundred, the colors and tener. The preterite and the imperfect tenses are dealt with at a relatively late stage, in chapters 7 and 8.

The attractive layout alternates headings of blank and red ink, and makes use of both blank-and-white photographs and delightfully primitivistic pencil sketches to exemplify lessons. There are also two sections of color photographs a total of eight pages that endeavor to demonstrate life in most of the different countries of the Hispanic world. Although the maps offer a rather complete listing of the names of cities they also name rivers but not mountain ranges , on the map of Spain it is ironic to see Ciudad Real labelled at the expense of the historically more important Toledo. This is all the more ironic since Toledo actually figures in an activity of Chapter 6 which requires making plans for a one-day trip there from Madrid There are many exciting ideas to be found in Entradas.

Of course it is repeated classroom use that must he its final proving ground, but a priori it seems like a good bet, and I predict a long useful life for this new effort en the pedagogical horizon. The text begins with TPR activities optional and four Preliminary Pasos , each of which opens with a listing of the functional material included [for example, greetings, thanking people, introducing oneself, etc. Seventeen regular lessons follow a similar format, with the addition of readings in the target language beginning with the first lesson after the Pasos. Several application exercises follow each grammar point.

Next comes a section called En contexto , which illustrates in a more life-like way the material just practiced. English translations of the dialogue material appear in small type at the bottom of the page only in the preliminary Pasos and Lessons 1 and 2, although discrete items are glossed in later dialogues. Culture readings also switch from English to Spanish beginning with Lesson 12, so that students are led to ever-increasing use of the target language throughout the book. Page numbers after vocabulary items in the Spanish-English glossary at the end of the book indicate where those items are introduced in the text, for easy reference.

This is truly a first-year text in that verb forms such as the future, the conditional, and the imperfect subjunctive are introduced only passively, reserving their detailed study for the second year. Another unique feature is that the subjunctive is studied in depth before the preterit and imperfect, again since communicative needs would require using the subjunctive before having to use the preterit or imperfect.

In looking at a typical chapter, one finds little use of English. Practically all directions, exercises, photo captions, etc. The exercises are set up with a definite context for each so that students will immediately place their language use in a real-life situation. This complete textbook package is heartily recommended to anyone interested in the communicative approach to foreign language instruction at the beginning level. University of Mississippi.

The eighteen chapters average twenty-two pages each. The accompanying reference dictionary contains thirty pages; a six-page index completes the text. Drawings and black-and-white photographs are interspersed throughout. Each chapter includes functional conversational, grammatical, and cultural goals, followed by a dialogue with questions, cultural notes in Spanish, an explanation of structures and vocabulary, interactive activities, a review section, and a reading in all but the first chapter.

Pronunciation exercises also appear at the end of each chapter. Audio cassettes, transparencies, a tapescript book, text bank, and a software program in IBM or MacIntosh versions all unavailable for review comprise the ancillary materials. Directions to all the exercises are given in Spanish in the Ud. The grammar explanations are not extensive, and there is an increased emphasis on language function and student-to-student interaction. That is, concepts introduced in early chapters e. Certainly, this is a skill in text writing that few have mastered.

It is also refreshing that the subjunctive is presented sequentially after the indicative, encouraging the use of commands and a more mature L2 than most texts. In addition, the option of which future tense to use synthetic vs. The readings are easy to follow at this level, yet are challenging for the beginning language learner, and they incorporate a great deal of culture.

One of the most inconsistent features of the text is its dialect presentation. The pronunciation is clearly oriented to South-American speech e. Nevertheless, the accusative le , coexisting in Spain, does not appear, but the equally dialectal os does. The familiar vos , statistically used by more speakers than vosotros , is not mentioned at all. The concept of oral proficiency is not well defined, since in plural formation 7 and in the preterit paradigms the written word seems to be the base for the spoken word, contrary to the findings of current research.

In addition, there are interactive exercises, but not nearly enough of them for an average-sized college classroom. No attempt was made to classify verbs in a manner other than the traditional regular-irregular categories cf.


The sentences are not creative and do not fully contextualize the exercises. I found the first chapter much too unwieldy for an introductory lesson to Spanish. The vocabulary list, for example, contains upwards of words, while the chapter covers demonstrative adjectives, requests for information, formal and informal greetings, gender and number of nouns, the numbers one to fifty, classroom expressions, gustar , negation, and singular verb forms.

Such a comprehensive chapter promises to be incomprehensible to the novice language learner. Some of the activities are too advanced for the level of Spanish e. Some recommendations that could enhance this text would be I to add some color to the black and brown drawings, or to include color photographs in the text itself, not just at the beginning; 2 to address the question of dialects; 3 to reduce so me of the grammar by excluding the imperfect subjunctive, for example; 4 to reduce the number of chapters. Because of the amount of material and the limited time that college classes meet, it is doubtful that all eighteen chapters could be covered adequately in two semesters the probable extent of use ; 5 to be consistent with dialect information, in terms of both pronunciation and morphology; 6 to contextualize all exercises.

There are better products on the market for total Spanish proficiency. Loyola College in Maryland. This textbook is a book of readings for the intermediate or advanced college level. It is successful. The outline of each chapter begins with a preliminary active vocabulary which is expected to prepare the students for the readings that follow.

The vocabulary is grouped by nouns, adjectives, adverbs and idiomatic expressions -each one in alphabetical order and with an English equivalent. Although this type of grouping is rather out of fashion, the English equivalent given was contextual. A set of exercises on this vocabulary followed. In addition, the readings had glosses in the margins and were footnoted with additional translations. This very worthwhile effort diminishes a students frustrations and leads more readily to the goal of active interaction.

The remaining sections of each chapter were: Cross references to grammar appendix, Reading Strategies, Fictional reading with glosses, Comprehension exercises and related activities, Related non-fictional reading, Development of discourse strategies and gambits for conversation, Interactive classroom activities using the Strategies and vocabulary from both readings, and Topics for discussion and compositions. Both led into the readings very successfully.

The remaining exercises were excellent and required thought and interaction. The fictional readings included two short stories, two excerpts from novels, two selections of poetry, and a drama. The themes were very relevant and included conflict of culture, exile, and unrequited love, among others. Each chapter suggests the review of two to four grammatical points Chapter 5 suggests formal, informal, and indirect commands as well as sequence of object pronouns. This can be useful to the instructor who wishes to include grammar but certainly not essential.

The authors intend this for the use of the students to study on their own but can readily be adapted for classroom use. Eastchester Union Free School District. In-depth studies of the poetic genius of Manuel Bandeira are legion but a cohesive, integrated collection of some of his most beloved poems is lacking. This finely constructed volume is intended to introduce the English reader to the finer inspired moments of Manuel Bandeira. The introduction serves to place the poet within a greater literary perspective and focuses on the salient themes repeated throughout a lifetime of poetic meditation.

The introductory notes provide excellent documentation and bibliography for further studies on Bandeira and attest to the thoroughness of the translator. The translator has created a faithful and clear rendering of the sensuous and impassioned verses of Bandeira and has maintained in most instances the lilting cadence of the Portuguese originals. While the translation in general flows rather smoothly, the final chapters contain some forced syntactical constructions that can be vexing to the reader.

Thus, while some portions of the translation appear stilted and needing of more refinement, they are quite understandable. Regardless of a few minor defects in the translation, Fedorchek has provided facile access to one of the lesser known and translated works of this great Portuguese writer. California State University, Sacramento. Although he owes his reputation primarily to his novels, he is also the creator of some fine short stories. Like other Latin Americans of his generation, Onetti writer in a style replete with problems for the translator. These include a convoluted style reminiscent of Faulkner a major influence and an abundance of abstract nouns which, if not translated with care, can cloud meaning and lessen poetic effect.

This tale is typical Onetti fare for its solitary, unnamed protagonist, sketchy relationships, and shifting points of view. Her demise in the final lines suggests the absurdity of both life and art.

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Written between and , the tales of this volume convey many of the existential themes characteristic of post-World-War-II literature. Colorado State University. Barcelona: Destino, Revista trimestral de cultura, ciencia y humanidades. Madrid: Ediciones Rialp, El modernista y su isla. Miami: Ediciones Universal, Index of American Periodical Verse: Las guerras de nuestros antepasados en teatro. Thomas O. Norman: U of Oklahoma Press, Thanks to God and the Revolution. The Oral History of a Nicaraguan Family. Madison: U of Wisconsin Press, Translated by Jack Emory Davis.

Aztec Thought and Culture. First paperback printing. Time and Reality in the Thought of the Maya. Foreword by Sir J. Eric S. Appendix by Alfonso Villa Rojas. Translated by Charles L. Fernando Horcasitas, and the author. Second edition, enlarged. Romantic Spain. The Language of Spanish Dance. Hondo corre el cauto. Exiled Memories. A Cuban Childhood. Austin: U of Texas Press, Days of Plenty, Days of Want. Tempe, Arizona: Bilingual Press, Book Reviews.

Latini, Brunetto. Libro del tesoro. Edited by Spurgeon Baldwin. Madison: Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies, La mistica spagnola. Levi, Jebb, Producer. Song of the Sephardi.